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Pronunciation vs Spelling
Consonants Vowels and the Syllable
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3rd tone 4th tone affricates allophones alveolar ridge aspirated back vowel base finals chang qu China cud finals dental dialect diphthongs dong English diphthong English speakers English vowel environment example Exemplary Sentence Exercise feng four tones fricative full finals glottal hao biao high back high front rounded high front un-rounded high front vowels high vowels Jiang labials language Lincoln speech LINCOM linguistic Mandarin Chinese Mandarin vowel manner of articulation meaning minimal pair morpheme-syllable morphemes nasal stop National Phonetic Alphabet numbers palate phonetic symbols Phonology Pinyin Pinyin and Yale place of articulation pronounced retro-palatal schwa Section semi-vowels Shanghai simple vowels slant Sound Systems Sounds produced source word syllable-finally syllable-initially target word third tone three strokes tone marks tone sequence tone word tongue position un-aspirated velar vocal cords vocal tract voiced voiceless vowel sound xiang Zhao