## Philosophy and Logic in Central Europe from Bolzano to Tarski: Selected Essaysways of doing it, but it is wrong to project it far into the past: it did not exist at the turn of the century and only became clearly apparent after the Second World War. I recently taught at an American university on the his tory of philosophy from Balzano to Husserl. The course title had to come from a fixed pool and gave trouble. Was it philosophical logic, the nine teenth century, or phenomenology? A logic title would connote over this period Frege, Russell, Carnap, perhaps a mention of Boole: not continental enough. The nineteenth century? The century of Kant's successors: Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Feuer bach, Marx, Nietzsche? What have they to do with Balzano, Lotze, Brentano, Meinong, Husserl and Twardowski? Even tually 'Phenomenology' was chosen, misdescribing more than half of the course. That illustrates the problems one faces in trying to work against the picture of the period which is ingrained in minds and syllabuses. This book arises from my efforts to combat that picture. I backed into writing about the history of recent philosophy rather than setting out to do so. The beginning was chance. In Manchester in the early seventies, at a time when most English philosophy departments breathed re cycled Oxford air, the intellectual atmosphere derived from Cambridge and Warsaw, spiced with a breath of Freiburg and Paris. |

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### Contents

Central Europe in the history of philosophy | 1 |

Bolzano Tarski and the limits of logic | 13 |

Brentanos reform of logic | 41 |

Copyright | |

17 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

abstract analytic Aristotle atomic complexes Austrian axiom Bolzano Brentanian Brentano coextensionality common nouns concepts conjunction consider corresponding define definition denoting dependence distinction domain of magnitudes entities equivalence example exist existential expressions extension extensional fact factual false formal foundation free logic Frege functor functor categories given Graz Husserl idea identity impossible objects incomplete objects independent individual Ingarden interpretation ISBN judgements kind Leibniz Lejewski Lesniewski logical constants logical objects logical system logicians Lukasiewicz many-valued logic mathematical meaning Meinong mereological modal modal logic names natural language natural numbers negation nominal notion Ontology philosophy plural possible predicate logic principle problem properties propositions Protothetic quantifiers real numbers relation Russell Russell's Sachverhalt Schlick semantics sense sentence set theory Simons simple singular terms species suggested symbols syntactic category Tarski theorems things Tractatus true truth truth-functions truth-values Twardowski unfactual variables Vienna Circle whole Wittgenstein