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adapoids adaptations Africa Afropithecus analysis ancestor anthropoids anthropology apes archeological artifacts behavior Biol biology bone brain Cambridge carbon catarrhines characters chimpanzees clade cladistic classiﬁcation climate cranial Darwin dating deﬁned deﬁnition dental diet difﬁcult diversity Dmanisi Dryopithecus early hominids ecological enamel environment Eocene euprimates evidence evolutionary extant fauna ﬁeld ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁtness fossil record gene genetic genome genus global hominid Homo homology homoplasy Hum Evol human evolution hypothesis inﬂuence isotope Late Miocene Leakey Lee‐Thorp lineage mammals methods Middle Miocene Miocene modern humans molecular morphology mtDNA Nature Neanderthal origins paleoanthropology Paleolithic paleosols parsimony patterns Phanerozoic phylogenetic phylogeny Phys Anthropol Pleistocene plesiadapiforms Pliocene population postcranial primate reconstruction reﬂect relative Retallack sample Science scientiﬁc sediments selection sequence signiﬁcant Sivapithecus species speciﬁc specimens strepsirhines studies synapomorphies taxa taxon taxonomic teeth theory tion traits tree University Press variability York
Page 31 - In each great region of the world the living mammals are closely related to the extinct species of the same region. It is, therefore, probable that Africa was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee ; and, as these two species are now man's nearest allies, it is somewhat more probable that our early progenitors lived on the African Continent than elsewhere.
Page 75 - ... been stated that I attribute the modification of species exclusively to natural selection, I may be permitted to remark that in the first edition of this work, and subsequently, I placed in a most conspicuous position — namely, at the close of the Introduction the following words : "I am convinced that natural selection has been the main but not the exclusive means of modification.