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areas beam bearing pressure bed course behaviour bending brick brickwork Building Research Establishment Calcium silicate cause of damage cent chalk Chapter collapse concrete consolidation cracking creep cross walls damp damp-proof course decay deflection detect deterioration diagram differential movement distortion survey drains earth wall effect evidence example excavation expansion external walls factor of safety Figure foundation movement geotechnical engineer ground investigation heave horizontal infestation inherent variations instability joints joists less level survey lintels liquid limit load masonry material mediaeval timber moisture content monitoring mortar normally occur pattern piezometer possible potential causes problem purlins rafters reduced removed resistance restraint risk roof spread Rotational slips settlement shallow shear shows shrinkable clay shrinkage slope soil sometimes spirit level stability stiffness storey strength stress structural appraisal subsidence surface temperature tensile tensile stress thermal timber frame traditional buildings tree trial holes types typical usually vibration visual inspection vulnerable weak weakened wind