World Trade Center building performance study: data collection, preliminary observations, and recommendations
Gene Corley, United States. Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Region II., Greenhorne & O'Mara
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, 2002 - Architecture - 303 pages
The collapse of the two 110-storey towers of the World Trade Centre following the September 11 terrorist attacks was amongst the worst building disasters in history and resulted in the loss of 2,830 lives. This study has been produced by the Federal Emergency Management Agency with the help of experts in tall building design, steel structure behaviour, fire and blast engineering and structural investigation. It considers the immediate effects of the aircraft impacts on each tower, the spread of fire following the crashes, the fire-induced reduction of structural strength and the complex series of events that led to the collapse of each tower. It also looks at the performance of buildings in the immediate vicinity to determine the effects of damage from falling debris and fires. Recommendations are presented for detailed engineering studies in order to produce improved guidance and tools for building design and performance evaluation.
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7th floor 90 West Street A36 steel additional aircraft impact analysis approximately ASTM El 19 Bankers Trust building behavior bolts buckling building codes building occupants building performance cantilever capacity collapse of WTC column lines column splices concrete core columns design and construction developed east egress elements elevation emergency evacuation exterior columns exterior wall facade face of WTC failure FDNY feet fire damage Fire Protection Engineering fire resistance fire test fireballs fireproofing flange floor framing floor slabs fuel oil heat impact damage inches interior jet fuel Liberty Plaza located material modeled observed occurred partial collapse perimeter columns Plaza portion pump resulting SEAoNY September 11 shear connections shown in Figure spandrel spandrel beams sprinkler stairways strength structural damage structural engineers structural members structural system tanks temperature tensile transfer girders typical weld World Trade Center WTC towers Yellow Moderate Damaqe yield strength