## Basic ElectricityFrom a simplified explanation of the electronic to AC/DC machinery, alternators and other advanced topics, "Basic Electricity" is the complete course for mastering the fundamentals of electricity. The authors have provided a clear understanding of how electricity is produced, measured, controlled, and used. A minimum of mathematics is used for the direct explanations of primary cells, magnetism, Ohm's Law, capacitance, transformers, DC generators, AC motors, and other essential topics. |

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### Contents

What Electricity | 1-1 |

What an Insulator Is 114 | 1-14 |

Review of Electric Charges 127 | 1-27 |

Direction of Current Flow | 1-41 |

Review of Current Flow 143 | 1-43 |

Voltage and Current Flow 149 | 1-49 |

Electricity Produced from Frictional Energy Static Electricity 155 | 1-56 |

Chemical Action Produced from Electricity 164 | 1-64 |

Inductive Reactance 372 | 3-72 |

Power in Inductive CircuitsReview of Power Formulas 379 | 3-79 |

The Effect of Phase Difference on the AC Power Wave 380 | 3-80 |

Capacitance in DC Circuits 393 | 3-93 |

Capacitor Color Codes 3107 | 3-107 |

Power in a Capacitive Circuit 3120 | 3-120 |

ExperimentApplicationCapacitive Reactance 3133 | 3-133 |

Troubleshooting Capacitors DCAC Circuits 3136 | 3-136 |

Review of How Electricity Is Produced 170 | 1-70 |

Magnetic Fields around a Coil 177 | 1-77 |

How a Meter Works | 1-83 |

Meter Movement Considerations 189 | 1-89 |

Review of How a Meter Works I | 1-93 |

Milliammeters and Microammeters I | 1-99 |

SelfTestReview Questions 1105 | 1-105 |

Multirange Voltmeters 1111 | 1-111 |

Units of Resistance 1118 | 1-118 |

Review of Current I Voltage E and Resistance R 1124 | 1-124 |

Volume 2 | 2-1 |

The Load | 2-2 |

ExperimentApplication DC Motor Speed Control Back | 2-5 |

Simple Circuit Connections | 2-8 |

Ohms Law Rules 214 | 2-14 |

ResistorsUse Construction and Properties 222 | 2-22 |

Review of Resistance Including Material from Volume 1 230 | 2-30 |

Voltage in Series CircuitsKirchhoffs Second Law 236 | 2-37 |

Variable Resistors 242 | 2-43 |

ExperimentApplicationShort Circuits 250 | 2-50 |

ExperimentApplicationSeries Circuit Current 256 | 2-56 |

Current Flow in Parallel Circuits 261 | 2-61 |

ExperimentApplication Kirchhoffs First Law 275 | 2-75 |

ExperimentApplicationOhms Law and Parallel Resistances 288 | 2-88 |

Ohms Law in SeriesParallel CircuitsCurrent 2101 | 2-101 |

Power Rating of Equipment 2115 | 2-115 |

ExperimentApplicationThe Use of Fuses 2125 | 2-125 |

Thevenlns and Nortons Theorems | 2-133 |

Parallel Circuits 2140 | 2-140 |

Introduction to Alternating Current | 2-148 |

and AC Circuits | 3-2 |

Transformers | 3-4 |

Waveforms | 3-10 |

The Elementary Generator | 3-13 |

Elementary Generator Output 316 | 3-16 |

Review of Alternating Current 324 | 3-24 |

Self TestReview Questions 2124 | 3-25 |

Rectifier Type AC Voltmeters 330 | 3-30 |

AC AmmetersThe Clampon Ammeter 336 | 3-36 |

SelfTestReview Questions 342 | 3-42 |

Power in AC Circuits 347 | 3-48 |

SelfTestReview Questions 351 | 3-54 |

Inductance Symbols 363 | 3-63 |

Volume 4 | 4-2 |

What a Vector Is | 4-9 |

R and L Series Circuit Impedance 413 | 4-15 |

ExperimentApplicationImpedance in R and L Series | 4-21 |

ExperimentApplicationImpedance in R and C Series | 4-28 |

R L and C Series Circuit Voltages 434 | 4-34 |

ExperimentApplicationSeries Resonance 442 | 4-42 |

Review of Current Voltage Impedance Resonance Power | 4-48 |

AC Parallel Circuits | 4-49 |

R and L Parallel Circuit Impedance 456 | 4-56 |

ExperimentApplicationRC Parallel Circuit Current | 4-62 |

ExperimentApplicationParallel Circuit Resonance 468 | 4-68 |

Power and Power Factor in Parallel Circuits 475 | 4-75 |

SeriesParallel CircuitsSolution by Calculation 481 | 4-81 |

ExperimentApplicationVerification of Calculated Current | 4-88 |

Mutual InductionFaradays Law 491 | 4-91 |

Transformer Losses 497 | 4-97 |

Review of Transformers 4103 | 4-103 |

Troubleshooting Transformer CircuitsOpen Circuits 4109 | 4-109 |

Appendix | 4-116 |

Applying Scientific Notation 4123 | 4-123 |

Volume 5 | 5-1 |

The Electric Circuit | 5-2 |

The Parts of an Elementary Generator | 5-7 |

Generator | 5-20 |

The SelfExcited Series DC Generator 533 | 5-33 |

Commutator Action in a DC Motor 547 | 5-47 |

Controlling the Speed of a DC Motor 560 | 5-60 |

Review of DC Motors 562 | 5-62 |

Circuit Protection DevicesCircuit Breakers 568 | 5-68 |

Shunt Motor Starters Manual 574 | 5-74 |

Review of DC Systems and Controls 580 | 5-80 |

Insulation Breakdown Shorts and Open Circuits 586 | 5-86 |

Frequency of Alternator Output 592 | 5-92 |

ThreePhase Alternators 598 | 5-98 |

Multiphase Transformers 5104 | 5-104 |

Rotating Field 5111 | 5-111 |

SinglePhase Induction MotorsStator Fields 5124 | 5-124 |

SelfTest Review Questions 5109 | 5-136 |

AC System and Controls | 5-137 |

Electronic Motor Speed Controllers and Lamp Dimmers 5150 | 5-150 |

### Common terms and phrases

90 degrees ac circuits ac current ac voltage ac voltmeter alternating current ammeter ampere apparent power battery branch currents calculate capacitive circuit capacitive reactance capacitor circuit consisting Circuit Impedance circuit shown circuit voltage Circuits continued complex circuit conductor connected in series constant cuit current and voltage current flow decimal point decreases diagram dielectric direction elec electric circuit electrons equal farad frequency fuse increases induced emf inductive circuit inductive reactance inductor lines of force load loop magnetic field maximum value measure meter movement milliammeter negative neon lamp Ohm's Law ohmmeter ohms opposite parallel circuit parallel combination phase angle plates polarity power factor rated resis resistor resonance series circuit series-parallel circuit sine wave switch tance terminals total circuit current total current total resistance total voltage transformer Troubleshooting true power vector voltage and current voltage drop voltage source voltmeter volts wattmeter watts waveform wire zero