The Forces of Nature: A Popular Introduction to the Study of Physical Phenomena (Google eBook)

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Macmillan and Company, 1873 - Light - 679 pages
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Contents

The air a heavy bodyElasticity and compressibility of air and other gases
84
Principle of the ascent of liquids in pumpsSuction and force pumpsThe
102
CHAPTER I
123
CHAPTER III
138
CHAPTER IV
145
THE ELECTRIC LIGHT
147
CHAPTER V
163
Sonorous tubes Laws of the vibrations of open and closed tubes of different lengths
172
Longitudinal vibrations of rods
174
Nodal lines of vibrating square plates according to Savart
176
Nodal lines of vibrating circular or polygonal plates according to Chladui and Savart
177
CHAPTER VI
178
Propagation of the sonorous vibrations in a cylindrical and unlimited gaseous column
179
Propagation of a sonorous wave through an unlimited medium
181
13a Experiment proving the coexistence of waves Propagation and reflec tion of liquid waves on the surface of a bath of mercury
183
CHAPTER VII
185
CHAPTER VIII
193
A tuningfork mounted on a soundingbox
194
Optical study of vibratory movements
196
Optical curves representing the rectangular vibrations of two tuning forks in unison
197
Open tube with manonietric flames
199
Manometric flames Fundamental note and the octave above the fundamental note
200
Apparatus for the comparison of the vibratory movements of two sonorous tubes
201
Manometric flames simultaneously given by two tubes at the octave
202
CHAPTER IX
204
Helmholtzs resonance globe
205
Koenigs apparatus for analysing clangtinu
206
Organ of hearing in man anatomical description of the earThe external ear
208
The human ear section of the interior tympanum chain of small bones Internal ear labyrinth
210
Details of the auditory ossicles 2n 147 Section of the cochlea
211
Auditory apparatus of fishes ear of the Ray gl2 149 The human voice interior view of the larynx Glottis vocal chords
213
BOOK III
217
Propagation of light in a right line 2o4 151 Rectilinear propagation of light
221
Cone of shadow of an opaque body Completed shadow
225
Cones of umbra and penumbra
226
Silhouettes of perforated cards effect of the unibraand penumbra
227
Inverted image of a candle
229
Dark chamber Reversed image of a landscape
230
Measure of the velocity of light by the eclipses of Jupiters satellites
232
Fizeaus instrument for the direct measure of the velocity of light
235
Measure of the velocity of light by M Fiseau
236
CHAPTER III
238
Law of the square of distances
241
Rumfords photometer
243
Bouguers photometer
244
Phenomena of reflection of lightLight reflected by mirrors diffused light
247
Experimental study of the laws of the reflection of light
251
Reflection from a plane mirror Form and position of the images
252
Reflection from a plane mirror Field of the mirror
253
Reflections from two plane parallel mirrors Multiple images
254
Images on two mirrors inclined at right angles to each other
255
Images in mirrors at 45
256
Polemoscope
257
Magic telescope
258
Concave mirror Inverted image smaller than the object
259
Concave mirror Inverted images larger than the object
260
Concave mirror Virtual images erect and larger than the object
261
Concave mirror Path and reflection of rays parallel to the axis Prin cipal focus
262
Concave mirror Conjugate foci
263
Concave mirror Real and inverted image of objects
264
Upright virtual image in convex spherical mirror
265
Convex mirror Erect and virtual image
266
Caustic by reflection
267
Reflection on conical mirrors Anamorphosis
268
Light reflected very obliquely
269
Irregular reflection or scattering of light on the surface of an unpolished body
270
The Ghost produced by reflection
271
Arrangement of the unsilvered glass and the position of the Ghost
273
CHAPTER V
275
Refraction of light Apparent elevation of the bottoms of vessels
276
Experimental demonstration of the laws of refraction
278
Law of sines
279
Explanation of the bent stick
280
Total reflection Limiting angle
281
Phenomenon of total reflection
282
Phenomenon of total reflection in the shutter of a camera obscura
283
Atmospheric refraction The effect on the rising and setting of stirs
284
CHAPTER VI
286
Normal view Deviation due to refraction through plates with 205 Oblique view S parallel faces 206 Path of a luminous pencil
287
Multiple images produced by refraction in plates with parallel faces
288
Prism mounted on a stand
289
Images of objects seen through prisms
290
Magnifying glass or lens with convex surfaces side and front view
291
Converging lenses Biconvex lens planoconvex lens converging meniscus
293
Path of rays parallel to the axis Principal focus
294
The lens may be considered as an assemblage of prisms
295
Path of rays emanating from a luminous point on the axis Conjugate foci
296
Real image inverted and smaller than the object
297
Real image inverted and larger than the object
298
Erect and virtual images of an object placed between the principal focus ami the lens
299
22G Erect virtual images smaller than the object in a biconcave lens
300
Camera obscure
301
Lensprism of the camera obscure
302
Magic lantern
303
Solar microscope complete
304
CHAPTER VII
306
Decomposition of light by the prism Unequal refrangihility of the colours of the spectrum
307
Reconiposition of light by a lens
309
Spectroscope
329
PHOSPHORESCENCE
341
Ed Becqucrcld phosphoroscope
345
Disc of the phosphoroscope
347
CHAPTER XII
349
Spectra of different Light Sources
352
CHAPTER XIII
357
Jrimaldis experiment Dark and bright fringes produced by a system of two small circular holes
358
Hresnels experiment of two mirrors experimental demonit ration of the principle of interference
360
Polychromatic Fringes
364
CHAPTER XIV
367
CHAPTER XV
376
Equal intensity of tlic ordinary and extraordinary images in a doubly refractive
385
CHAPTER XVII
397
Coloured Kings produced by Doubly Refractisu Prisms
400
CHAPTER XVIII
406
BOOK IV
415
CHAPTER II
432
CHANGES IN THE STATE OF HOMES
443
CHAPTER IV
457
CHAPTER V
477
CHAPTER VI
484
CHAPTER VII
492
What we understand by the mechanical equivalent of heat Joules experiments
504
MA ONETISM
511
CHAPTER I
531
CHAPTER II
545
no PAOF 307 Nairncs machine furnishing the two electricities
558
Armstrongs hydroelectric machine 5i0 319 Elcctrophorus with resin cake 551
562
Electrical hail
563
Luminous tube 504
564
Luminous globe 505
565
CHAPTER III
567
Kinnersleys thermometer
568
Charging the Lcyden jar 509
571
Lcyden jar with moveable coatings
572
Instantaneous discharge of a Leyden jar by means of the discharger
573
Successive discharges of a Leyden jar Chimes
574
Leichtenbcrgs figures Distribution of the two kinds of electricity 675
575
Leichtenbcrgs figures Distribution of the positive electricity
576
Leichtenbcrgs figures Distribution of the negative electricity
577
Battery of electrical jars
578
38 Universal discharger
579
Experiment of perforating a card
580
Experiment of perforating glass
581
Franklins portrait experiment
582
Voltas pistol Interior view
583
Fulminating pano
584
CHAPTER IV
585
Contraction of the muscles of a frog Repetition of Galvanis experiment
588
Voltaic or column pile
589
Electricity developed by chemical action
591
Crown or cup pile
593
Wollastons pile
594
4i3 Spiral pile
595
Couple of Daniells battery
596
Couple of I unsens battery
597
Pilo formed by five Bunsens elements
598
CHAPTER V
604
DoconiKsition of water by the voltaic pile 001
605
Deviation of the southern pole towards the left under the influence of the upper current 006
606
Deviation to the left of the current Lower current
607
no PAGE 414 System of two astatic needles
609
Action of a magnet on a current
611
Direction of a solenoid in the meridian under the action of the earth
613
Particular currents of magnets
614
dextrorsal and sinistrorsal spirals
615
production of consequent points
616
Horseshoe electromagnet
617
Magnetic chain
618
CHAPTER VI
620
Polar Aurora Borealis
621
Induction by the approach of a current
622
Induction by a magnet
623
Induction by the approach or removal of a magnetic pole
624
Clarkes magnetoelectrical machine
625
Ruhmkorffs induction coil
627
Commutator of Ruhmkorif s machine Plan and elevation
629
Sparks obtained by static electrical discharges luminpus tufts Light in rarefied
631
Sparks obtained by the discharge of static electricity
632
Form of electric discharges Van Marum
633
Electrical brush according to Van Marum
635
Positive and negative brushes 036
636
The electric egg
637
Carbon points of the electric light and the Voltaic arc between them
639
Luminous sheaf in rarefied air Discharge of induction currents
641
The Electric Arc in Rarkfied Gases
642
mirage rainbow Tension of aqueous vapour in the atmosphere
647
Explanation of the mirage 64
649
Double Kainbow
650
Paths of the effective rays through a drop of rain after a single internal reflection
651
Theory of the rainbow formation of the principal and secondary arc
653
De Saussures hair hygrometer
656
Forms of snow crystals Scoresby
657
Dissection of a block of ice by the solar rays Crystalline structure of ice
660
2 Iceflowers Tyndall
661
Rutherfords maximum and minimum thermometers 602
662
Maximum and minimum thermometers of M Walferdin
663

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 330 - ... of those fundamental modes, if some of the incident light is of one or other of their periods, or some of one and some of the other; so that the energy of the waves of those particular qualities of light is converted into thermal vibrations of the medium and dispersed in all directions, while light of all other qualities, even though very nearly agreeing with them, is transmitted with comparatively no loss. (5) That...
Page 329 - Miller, which showed it to be accurate to an astonishing degree of minuteness. (3) The fact that the yellow light given out when salt is thrown on burning spirit consists almost solely of the two nearly identical qualities which constitute that double bright line. (4) Observations made by Stokes himself, which showed the bright line D to be absent in a candle-flame when the wick was snuffed clean, so as not to project into the luminous envelope, and from an alcohol flame when the spirit was burned...
Page 352 - So that, generally, representing the interval between each soldier by an elastic cord, if the barrack and the eye approach each other by the motion of either, the cord will contract ; in the case of recession, the cord will stretch. Now let the barrack represent the hydrogen on the sun, perpetually paying out waves of light, and let the elastic cord represent one of these waves ; its length will be changed if the hydrogen and the eye approach each other by the motion of either. Particular wave-lengths...
Page 352 - ... towards you, now from you. In the first case the men will be paid out, so to speak, more rapidly. The motion of the barrack-gate towards you will plant each soldier nearer the preceding one than he would have been if the barrack had remained at rest. The soldiers will really be nearer together. In the second case, it is obvious that the interval will be greater, and the soldiers will really be further apart. So that, generally, representing the interval between each soldier by an elastic cord,...
Page 352 - You find that more soldiers pass you than change v before in the same time, and, reckoned in time, the interval between each soldier is less. You now move still slowly from the barrack, ie with the soldiers. You find that fewer soldiers now pass you, and that the interval between each is longer. Now suppose yourself at rest, and suppose the barrack to have a motion now towards you, now from you. In the first case the men will be payed out, so to speak, more rapidly. The motion of the barrack-gate...
Page 332 - Again, if the gaseous or vaporous substance gives out but few lines, then, although the light which emanates from it may be much less brilliant than that radiated by a solid or liquid, the light may be SO localized, and therefore intensified, in one case, and so spread out, and therefore diluted, in the other, that the bright lines from the feeble light source may in the spectroscope appear much brighter than the corresponding parts of the spectrum of the more lustrous solid body. Now here comes...
Page 330 - ... it has two fundamental notes or vibrations of approximately equal pitch ; and that the periods of these vibrations are precisely the periods of the two slightly different yellow lights constituting the double bright line D. (3) That when vapour of sodium is at a high enough temperature to become itself a source of light, each atom executes these two fundamental vibrations simultaneously ; and that therefore the light proceeding from it is of the two qualities constituting the double bright line...
Page 353 - Next fix your attention on the edge of the globe — the limb, in astronomical language ; here it is evident that an upward or downward movement is as powerless to alter the wave-length as a lateral movement was in the other case, but that, should any lateral or cyclonic movement occur here of sufficient velocity, it might be detected. So that we have the centre of the disc for studying upward and downward movements, and the limb for studying lateral or cyclonic movements, if they exist. If the hydrogen-lines...
Page 316 - ... different for a different form of the curve. May not the colours of the fixed stars be owing to a difference of this kind? white will acquire a tinge of yellow ; if the blue and green be successively stopped, this yellow will grow more and more ruddy, and pass through orange to scarlet and blood red. If, on the other hand, the red end of the spectrum be stopped, and more and more of the less refrangible portion thus successively abstracted from the beam, the white will pass first into pale, and...
Page 330 - ... other ; so that the energy of the waves of those particular qualities of light is converted into thermal vibrations of the medium, and dispersed in all directions, while light of all other qualities, even though very nearly agreeing with them, is transmitted with comparatively no loss. (5) That Fraunhofer's double dark line D of solar and stellar spectra is due to the presence of vapour of sodium in atmospheres surrounding the sun and those stars in whose spectra it had been observed. (6) That...

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