City and Sanctuary: Religion and Architecture in the Roman Near East
City and Sanctuary challenges some common assumptions about the Near East in the Roman and Early Byzantine periods by examining the architecture and urban design of five cities: Palmyra, Petra, Gerasa, Caesarea Maritima and Jerusalem. Peter Richardson argues that each city is different, partly due to the degree of its openness to Roman influence. Within these differences, each city demonstrates the persistent importance of religion to its life, not merely in its monuments but especially in the ways that its sanctuaries influenced the urban shape and dynamic forms of the city.
The various kinds of religious structures found in each city are examined. These include cult centres of international importance, temples dedicated to the Olympian gods, buildings for mystery religions and houses adapted for Judaism, Christianity and Mithraism.
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Roman expansion and Romanization
Rome and the Levant
Rome and Arabia
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adyton altar Antonia Fortress Arab Arabia archaeological architectural axis Ba'al Shamim Basilica bath building built Caesarea Maritima cavea central centre century bce Christian Church city's civic colonnaded colonnaded street columns courtyard cultural decorated Decumanus Dionysus Dushara earlier early 2nd east eastern especially evidence excavations facade focus Gate Gerasa harbour Hasmonean Hellenistic Herod Herodian hippodrome imperial cult important indigenous inscription Jerusalem Jewish Josephus Judea Khasneh late 1st late 2nd late first century later layout Levant major monumental arch Nabatean naos Nebo nymphaeum Octavian orientation Oval Piazza Palmyra Parthia Petra plaza pool processional propylaea province religion Revolt Richardson Roma and Augustus Roman period Roman world Rome Rome's Royal sanctuary stairs synagogue Syria temenos temple mount Temple of Artemis Temple of Bel Temple of Dionysus Temple of Dushara Temple of Roma tetrakionion theatre tion tombs traditional Tyropoeon Valley urban design wadi wall western hill Zeus