The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting, and Intent

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University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999 - Political Science - 378 pages
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Selected by Choice magazine as an Outstanding Academic Book for 1999

Born of a shared revulsion against the horrors of the Holocaust, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has become the single most important statement of international ethics. It was inspired by and reflects the full scope of President Franklin Roosevelt's famous four freedoms: "the freedom of speech and expression, the freedom of worship, the freedom from want, and the freedom from fear." Written by a UN commission led by Eleanor Roosevelt and adopted in 1948, the Declaration has become the moral backbone of more than two hundred human rights instruments that are now a part of our world. The result of a truly international negotiating process, the document has been a source of hope and inspiration to thousands of groups and millions of oppressed individuals.

  

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Contents

The Drafting Process Explained
1
12 The Seven Drafting Stages
4
13 Original Intentions and the Cold War
12
14 The Eight Abstentions
21
15 Authors Title and Addressees
28
World War II as Catalyst
36
21 Personal Security and the Camps
37
22 Nazification and Legal Human Rights
43
53 The Campaign for Trade Union Rights
168
54 Union Shops Strikes and Levels of Implementation
174
Human Labour Is Not a Merchandise
181
Social Security Education and Culture
191
61 Food Clothing Housing and Medical Care
192
62 Troubles with the Phrase Social Security
199
63 The Rights to Full Development Education and Culture
210
64 The Distinction Between Old and New Human Rights
222

23 The Problem with the Nuremberg Trials
52
24 Democracy Free Speech and Hate Speech
58
25 Special International Rights and the Role of the United Nation
72
26 Social Economic and Cultural Examples
88
Colonies Minorities and Womens Rights
92
31 The Communist Push for Nondiscrimination
93
32 The Problem of the Colonies
96
33 Race Color National Origin and Language
102
34 Political Opinion Property and Birth
109
35 The Womens Lobby and Womens Rights
116
Privacy and Different Kinds of Property
130
42 Inviolability and Privacy Rights
134
43 Should Personal Property Be Singled Out?
139
44 Alone as well as In Association with Others
146
45 A Minimum Within a Larger Framework
152
The Socialist Shape of WorkRelated Rights
157
51 Freedom and the Right to Work
158
52 The Right to Protection Against Unemployment
162
65 The Organic Unity of the Document
232
Duties and Communities
239
71 The Duties and Communities of Article 29
241
72 Protecting the Family Motherhood and Childhood
252
73 The Rights of Religious and Educational Communities
258
74 The Omission of a Special Minority Rights Article
269
Article 1 the Preamble and the Enlightenment
281
81 A Bargain About God and Nature
284
82 Inherent inalienable and Born
290
83 Reason and the Conscience of Mankind
296
84 The Rights to Petition and Rebellion
302
85 Human Rights as Means and Ends
313
86 The Declaration and Human Rights Education
320
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights with a Guide to Discussions of Specific Topics and Articles
329
Notes
337
Acknowledgments
379
Copyright

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About the author (1999)

Johannes Morsink is Professor of Political Philosophy in the Department of Political Science at Drew University. He is the author of Aristotle on the Generation of Animals.

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