## Probability, Statistics, and TruthThis comprehensive study of probability, its relation to statistics, and its truth-finding value considers the approaches of Pascal, Laplace, Poisson, and others. It also discusses Laws of Large Numbers, the theory of errors, and other relevant topics. Numerous examples complement the text. |

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### Contents

PREFACE TO THE THIRD GERMAN EDITION | 1 |

The Inadequacy of Theories | 7 |

Two Different Pairs of Dice | 13 |

Probability in the Gas Theory | 20 |

Example of Randomness | 27 |

Distribution in a Collective | 34 |

Mixing | 40 |

Initial and Final Probability of an Attribute | 46 |

The Strong Law of Large Numbers | 127 |

Closing Remarks | 133 |

Marbes Uniformity in the World | 139 |

Lexis Theory of Dispersion | 145 |

Normal and Nonnormal Dispersion | 152 |

R A Fishers Likelihood | 158 |

Some Results Summarized | 165 |

Descriptive Statistics | 166 |

Test of Independence | 53 |

Solution of the Problem of Chevalier de Méré | 62 |

Do Not Always Exist | 69 |

The Subjective Conception of Probability | 75 |

FOURTH LECTURE | 80 |

Objections to My Theory | 81 |

Objections to the Condition of Randomness | 87 |

A Problem of Terminology | 93 |

Probability as Part of the Theory of Sets | 99 |

Poissons Two Different Propositions | 104 |

The Content of Poissons Theorem | 112 |

Initial and Inferred Probability | 120 |

The Application of the Theory of Errors | 172 |

Random Fluctuations | 178 |

Order of Magnitude of Improbability | 184 |

Entropy Theorem and Markoff Chains | 192 |

Marsdens and Barratts Experiments | 198 |

Causal Explanation in Newtons Sense | 204 |

The Law of Causality | 210 |

Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle | 216 |

SuMMARY or THE SIX LECTuRES IN SIXTEEN PRoPoSITIoNS | 224 |

237 | |

NAME INDEX | 243 |

### Common terms and phrases

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