Industrial Radiology: Theory and Practice
Industrial radiography is a well-established non-destructive testing (NDT) method in which the basic principles were established many years ago. However, during 1993-95 the European Standards Organisa tion (CEN) commenced drafting many new standards on NDT including radiographic methods, and when completed these will replace national standards in all the EC member countries. In some cases these standards vary significantly from those in use in the UK at present. These CEN standards are accepted by majority, not unanimous voting, so they will become mandatory even in countries which vote against them. As most are likely to be legal by the time this second edition is published, they are described in the appropriate places in the text. The most important new technical development is the greater use of computers in radiology. In the first edition, computerized tomography was only briefly mentioned at the end of Chapter 11, as it was then largely a medical method with only a few equipments having found a place in industrial use. The method depends on a complex computer program and a large data store. Industrial equipments are now being built, although their spread into industry has been slow. Computer data storage is also being used for radiographic data. Small computers can now store all the data produced by scanning a radiographic film with a small light-spot, and various programs can be applied to these data.
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capabilities and limitations of radiographic
Basic properties of ionizing radiations
Gammaray sources and equipment
Recording of radiation
absorbed absorption Agfa-Gevaert applications atomic betatrons camera castings cavities Compton scattering container contrast crack curve detail detection detector diameter dose dose-rate effect electron emission emitted emulsion equipment exposure factor film density film speed film unsharpness filter flaw sensitivity fluorescent fluoroscopic focal spot gamma-ray source geometric unsharpness grains granularity half-life Halmshaw high energy X-rays image quality increase industrial radiography inspection intensifying screens intensity ionization chamber ionizing radiation IQI sensitivity isotopes kilovoltage kV X-rays lead light limited linacs material measured metal method microfocus minimum Modulation transfer function obtained penetration photon pipe plate possible practical processing produce pulse quantum radio radioactive radiographic radiographic films range scanning scattered radiation source-to-film distance spatial frequency specimen thickness spectrum standards steel surface Table target thermal neutrons thin tion unsharpness usually values voltage weld width X-ray beam X-ray energy X-ray set X-ray tube