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Page 178 - While the government and higher education sectors also carry out R&D, industrial R&D is most closely linked to the creation of new products and production techniques, as well as to a country's innovation efforts. The business enterprise sector includes: • All firms, organisations and institutions...
Page 178 - ... efforts. The business enterprise sector includes firms, organisations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods and services for sale to the general public at an economically significant price and the private and non-profit institutes that mainly serve them. The estimates presented in this book are from the OECD ANBERD database.
Page 182 - Surveys show that a large proportion of firms' inventions are patented and that a large proportion of patents become innovations with an economic use. Patents reveal inventions and innovations in small firms and in the engineering departments of large firms, which R&D indicators alone do not properly measure.
Page 233 - International Conference on Water and the Environment (1992), "Development Issues for the 21st Century", Dublin.
Page 8 - This volume is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.
Page 235 - Wack, P. (1985a) Scenarios: shooting the rapids, Harvard Business Review November/ December, 139-148. Wack, P. (1985b) Scenarios: uncharted waters ahead, Harvard Business Review September/October, 72-89.
Page 34 - The five existing space laws are the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, the Rescue and Return Agreement of 1968, the Liability Convention of 1972, the Registration Convention of 1975, and the Moon Agreement of 1979.
Page 35 - The end of the Cold War has not meant the end of armed violence in the world. As of 1998, there were 27 conflicts in 26 locations, according to the Swedish International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI),1 involving the following countries2: 1. SIPRI defines conflict as prolonged combat between military forces of governments or organized groups in...
Page 23 - ... in the past and are likely to continue to do so in the future, namely geopolitical developments, socio-economic developments and technology.