Einstein's Space-Time: An Introduction to Special and General Relativity (Google eBook)
Between 1994 and 1999, I had the pleasure of lecturing Special and General Relativity in the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales of the Universidad de Buenos Aires. These lectures were targeted to undergraduate and graduate students of Physics. However, it is increasingly apparent that interest in Relativity extends beyond these academic circles. Because of this reason, this book intends to become useful to students of related disciplines and to other readers interested in Einstein’s work, who will be able to incorporate entirely the fundamental ideas of Relativity starting from the very basic concepts of Physics. To understand the Theory of Relativity it is necessary to give up our intuitive notions of space and time, i. e. , the notions used in our daily relation with the world. These classical notions of space and time are also the foundations of Newtonian mechanics, which dominated Physics for over two centuries until they clashed with Maxwell’s electromagnetism. Classical physics assumed that space is immutable and its geometry obeys the Euclidean postulates. Furthermore, distances and time intervals are believed invariant, i. e. , independent of the state of motion. Both preconceptions about the nature of space and time rely firmly on our daily experience, in such a way that the classical notions are imprinted in our thought with the status of “true.
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absolute acceleration According to Eq angle atom axes body boost center of inertia center-of-momentum frame charge Christoffel symbols classical clocks components conservation laws constant coordinate change coordinate origin covariant derivative density direction distance Earth Einstein equations electric electromagnetic electron emitted energy–momentum tensor equal ether Euclidean Figure force four-vector four-velocity frame fixed freely gravitating frequency function Galileo transformations gauge geodesic geometry gravitational field hypersurface inertial frame inertial–gravitational field interaction invariant kinetic energy laboratory light ray linear Lorentz boosts Lorentz transformations mass Maxwell’s laws medium metric tensor motion movement moves with velocity Newton Newtonian null obtained orbit pair of events particle particle horizon perpendicular photon physical Principle of relativity propagation proper frame pulse radiation reference system relation relativistic rest result Schwarzschild simultaneous space space-time diagram spacelike spatial rotations Special Relativity speed of light timelike universe vector wave front world line zero
Page 2 - Absolute space, in its own nature, without regard to anything external, remains always similar and immovable. Relative space is some movable dimension or measure of the absolute spaces; which our senses determine by its position to bodies; and which is commonly taken for immovable space...
Page 2 - Absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external, and by another name is called duration: relative, apparent, and common time, is some sensible and external (whether accurate or unequable) measure of duration by the means of motion, which is commonly used instead of true time; such as an hour, a day, a month, a year.
Page 4 - Furthermore we may remark that any velocity once imparted to a moving body will be rigidly maintained as long as the external causes of acceleration or retardation are removed, a condition which is found only on horizontal planes...