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able abstract analysis of variance animals ANOVA antecedent conditions approach arousal behavior chance changes chapter CM CM computed value confounding control condition control group correlation counterbalancing critical value degrees of freedom demand characteristics dent variable dependent deviation different treatment conditions discussed distribution estimates evaluate ex post facto example experimental group explain external validity extraneous variables F ratio factorial design factorial experiment factors Figure findings groups of subjects independent variable infants interaction jects laboratory learning level of measurement look lucid dreams main effect matched groups measure ment naturalistic observation null hypothesis number of subjects operational definitions outcome pendent variable phenomenology population possible predictions preferences problem procedures progressive error psychology randomly reject the null relationship replicate sample scientific scores selected significance level statistical tests stimuli subject variables Table tions treatment groups two-group Type 2 error vari within-groups within-subjects design word frequency