Origins of Muslim Consciousness in India: A World-system Perspective (Google eBook)
The debate over the underlying causes of the clash between Hindus and Muslims which continues to polarize India is the central concern of this volume. Syed Nesar Ahmad challenges popular viewpoints regarding the Hindu-Muslim conflict by asserting that, although instrinsic differences between the two cultures do exist and this schism has been somewhat fueled by the cultural conditions in colonial India, the emergence and growth of the conflict is primarily the result of social and economic forces, both global and regional, that has caused the initial differences to intensify into cultural rift. Ahmad presents a thorough account of Indian history during the 19th and 20th centuries, analyzing how the relationship between Hindus and Muslims has been shaped by each significant political and social development. Evidence of both selectivism and assimilation between Hindus and Muslims, a concept not previously accepted, is apparent throughout the history, and the issue of the origins of the identity of the Muslim consciousness which now exerts such influence in the region is explained in terms of the interaction of religious, social, cultural, and global factors. By viewing India's struggle for its post-colonial identity from this comprehensive historical perspective, this work illuminates some of the fundamental causes of similar conflicts throughout the former colonial world.
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According agricultural Ahmad alienation all-India Bagchi Barelwi became Bengal Bihar Bombay British rule capitalist Chaudhuri colonial communal politics conflict Congress cotton created crisis cultivators cultural decline demand Depression economic elections emerging entrepreneurs export Faraidi G. M. Syed Gandhi Hasan Hindu landlords Hindu-Muslim Hindus and Muslims identity impact important Indian National Congress industrial Islam Jinnah jotedars Khan Khilafat movement Krishak Praja Party landowners large number leaders leadership majority provinces million ministry mobilize moneylenders Mughal Mughal empire Mujahiddin movement Muslim aristocracy Muslim elite Muslim landlords Muslim League nationalist Nehru Nehru Report Nesar non-cooperation movement northern India organization Pakistan Pakistan movement peasants percent period pointed population position production Punjab Qureshi radical reforms religious rent revenue revivalist rise rural Sayyid seats significant Sikhs Sir Sayyid social struggle substantial tenants taluqdars trade Ulema United Provinces unity upper elite urban Young Muslims zamindars
Page 6 - This religious revival was not brahmanical in its orthodoxy; it was heterodox in its spirit of protest against forms and ceremonies and class distinctions based on birth, and ethical in its preference of a pure heart, and of the law of love, to all other acquired merits and good works. This religious revival was the work also of the people, of the masses, and not of the classes.
Page 13 - Communalism was the false consciousness of the historical process of the last 150 years because, objectively, no real conflict between the interests of Hindus and Muslims existed. Of course, religion as a social diversity or differentiation existed in real life; but making this diversity the basis of political organization, mobilization, and action or seeing it as the main inner contradiction in social, economic and political life was certainly an aspect of false consciousness. Communalism was not,...