Top-Down Design of High-Performance Sigma-Delta Modulators
Springer Science & Business Media, 1999 - Computers - 287 pages
The interest for :I:~ modulation-based NO converters has significantly increased in the last years. The reason for that is twofold. On the one hand, unlike other converters that need accurate building blocks to obtain high res olution, :I:~ converters show low sensitivity to the imperfections of their building blocks. This is achieved through extensive use of digital signal pro cessing - a desirable feature regarding the implementation of NO interfaces in mainstream CMOS technologies which are better suited for implementing fast, dense, digital circuits than accurate analog circuits. On the other hand, the number of applications with industrial interest has also grown. In fact, starting from the earliest in the audio band, today we can find :I:~ converters in a large variety of NO interfaces, ranging from instrumentation to commu nications. These advances have been supported by a number of research works that have lead to a considerably large amount of published papers and books cov ering different sub-topics: from purely theoretical aspects to architecture and circuit optimization. However, so much material is often difficultly digested by those unexperienced designers who have been committed to developing a :I:~ converter, mainly because there is a lack of methodology. In our view, a clear methodology is necessary in :I:~ modulator design because all related tasks are rather hard.
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algorithm amplifier amplitude analog circuits analysis approximation basic blocks behavioral simulation calculated capacitor cascade modulator cascade ZA modulator Chapter circuitry clock phases CMOS coefficients comparator cost function D/A converter DC-gain design parameters design space dynamic range effective resolution electrical simulation equations expression Figure filter first-order fully-differential harmonic distortion hysteresis ideal IEEE implementation in-band error power incomplete settling increase input signal integration phase integrator output integrator weights iteration linear mismatching modulator architectures modulator output modulator performance multi-bit quantization noise power non-idealities non-linearity obtained offset opamp operation optimization output spectrum output voltage oversampling ratio power consumption power spectral density quantization error quantization noise reference voltages sampling frequency SC integrator SDOPT second-order modulator Section shown in Fig shows Sigma-Delta modulator signal band simulation results single-loop sizing slew-rate specifications stage switches synthesis Table techniques temperature thermal noise time-domain tion topologies transconductance transfer curve transfer function ZA modulator
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Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta A/D Conversion: Fundamentals, Performance Limits ...
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