The Drift of Sea Ice

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 1, 2005 - Nature - 266 pages
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The author presents inThe Drift of Sea Icethe fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. The resulting system of equations is analysed for the general properties of sea ice drift, the free drift model and analytical models for ice drift in the presence of internal friction, and the construction of numerical ice drift models is detailed. The science of sea ice drift through its 100-year history to the present day is explained. The text includes the geophysical theory, observations from field programs, and mathematical models. Topics covered include the science of sea ice drift, forecasting drift velocity based on volume, size and shape, sea ice ridging and remote sensing, modelling of the ice conditions, and finally the role of sea ice drift in research fields in ice-covered seas, oceanography, marine ecology and engineering.

  

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Contents

Introduction
1
Drift ice material
9
211 Sea ice landscape
10
212 Sea ice zones
15
213 Sea ice charting
17
22 ICE FLOES TO DRIFT ICE PARTICLES
19
222 Size and shape of ice floes Floe size distribution
22
23 THICKNESS OF DRIFT ICE
27
611 Classical case Free drift of thin ice
143
612 Onedimensional channel flow
146
613 Shallow waters
148
62 NONSTEADYSTATE SOLUTION
149
622 Linear model
150
623 Drift of a single floe
152
63 LINEAR COUPLED ICEOCEAN MODEL
154
631 General solution
155

232 Measurement methods
30
233 Ice thickness distribution
34
24 SEA ICE RIDGES
35
242 Statistical distributions of ridge size and occurrence
38
243 Ridging measures
40
244 Hummocked ice
41
245 Total thickness of deformed ice
42
Ice kinematics
45
311 Motion of a single floe
46
312 Continuum deformation
47
32 OBSERVATIONS
52
322 Characteristics of observed sea ice drift
55
323 Strain rate and vorticity The 100km scale
59
324 Deformation structures
65
33 STOCHASTIC MODELLING
67
332 Mean sea ice drift field in the Arctic Ocean
69
333 Diffusion
71
34 ICE CONSERVATION LAW
72
341 Ice states based on ice categories
73
342 Ice thickness distribution
75
Sea ice rheology
81
411 Rheological models
83
412 Internal stress of drift ice
84
413 Internal friction
87
42 VISCOUS LAWS
88
422 Nonlinear viscous models
90
43 PLASTIC LAWS
91
432 MohrCoulomb rheology
94
433 AIDJEX elasticplastic rheology
95
434 Hiblers viscousplastic theology
97
435 Scaling of ice strength
100
44 GRANULAR FLOW MODELS
103
Equation of drift ice motion
109
512 Vertical integration
112
513 Drift regimes
116
52 ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC DRAG FORCES
118
522 Drag force formulae
125
53 SCALE ANALYSIS AND DIMENSION ANALYSIS
130
532 Dimensionless form
133
533 Basin scales
137
54 DYNAMICS OF A SINGLE ICE FLOE
138
Free drift
141
632 Inertial oscillations
156
633 Periodic forcing
158
634 Free drift velocity spectrum
159
64 SPATIAL ASPECTS OF FREE DRIFT
161
641 Advection
163
Drift in the presence of internal friction
165
711 Examples
166
712 Frequency spectrum
170
713 Landfast ice
171
72 CHANNEL FLOW
173
721 Creep
174
722 Plastic flow
175
73 ZONAL SEA ICE DRIFT
177
winddriven case
178
732 Steady state with ocean currents
182
734 Viscous models
184
735 Marginal ice zone
185
736 Circular ice drift
187
74 MODELLING OF ICE TANK EXPERIMENTS
191
742 Case study
194
Numerical modelling
199
812 Numerical technology
202
813 CalibrationValidation
205
82 EXAMPLES OF SEA ICE DYNAMICS MODELS
206
822 Hibler model
208
823 The AIDJEX model
211
824 The Baltic Sea model
212
83 SHORTTERM MODELLING APPLICATIONS
214
832 Sea ice forecasting
217
84 LONGTERM MODELLING APPLICATIONS
222
842 Antarctic regions
224
Use and need for knowledge on ice drift
229
92 PRACTICE
232
93 FINAL COMMENTS
236
Study problems
239
CHAPTER 2
240
CHAPTER 4
241
CHAPTER 6
242
CHAPTER 7
243
References
245
Index
261
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