## The Drift of Sea IceThe author presents inThe Drift of Sea Icethe fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. The resulting system of equations is analysed for the general properties of sea ice drift, the free drift model and analytical models for ice drift in the presence of internal friction, and the construction of numerical ice drift models is detailed. The science of sea ice drift through its 100-year history to the present day is explained. The text includes the geophysical theory, observations from field programs, and mathematical models. Topics covered include the science of sea ice drift, forecasting drift velocity based on volume, size and shape, sea ice ridging and remote sensing, modelling of the ice conditions, and finally the role of sea ice drift in research fields in ice-covered seas, oceanography, marine ecology and engineering. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

Drift ice material | 9 |

211 Sea ice landscape | 10 |

212 Sea ice zones | 15 |

213 Sea ice charting | 17 |

22 ICE FLOES TO DRIFT ICE PARTICLES | 19 |

222 Size and shape of ice floes Floe size distribution | 22 |

23 THICKNESS OF DRIFT ICE | 27 |

611 Classical case Free drift of thin ice | 143 |

612 Onedimensional channel flow | 146 |

613 Shallow waters | 148 |

62 NONSTEADYSTATE SOLUTION | 149 |

622 Linear model | 150 |

623 Drift of a single floe | 152 |

63 LINEAR COUPLED ICEOCEAN MODEL | 154 |

631 General solution | 155 |

232 Measurement methods | 30 |

233 Ice thickness distribution | 34 |

24 SEA ICE RIDGES | 35 |

242 Statistical distributions of ridge size and occurrence | 38 |

243 Ridging measures | 40 |

244 Hummocked ice | 41 |

245 Total thickness of deformed ice | 42 |

Ice kinematics | 45 |

311 Motion of a single floe | 46 |

312 Continuum deformation | 47 |

32 OBSERVATIONS | 52 |

322 Characteristics of observed sea ice drift | 55 |

323 Strain rate and vorticity The 100km scale | 59 |

324 Deformation structures | 65 |

33 STOCHASTIC MODELLING | 67 |

332 Mean sea ice drift field in the Arctic Ocean | 69 |

333 Diffusion | 71 |

34 ICE CONSERVATION LAW | 72 |

341 Ice states based on ice categories | 73 |

342 Ice thickness distribution | 75 |

Sea ice rheology | 81 |

411 Rheological models | 83 |

412 Internal stress of drift ice | 84 |

413 Internal friction | 87 |

42 VISCOUS LAWS | 88 |

422 Nonlinear viscous models | 90 |

43 PLASTIC LAWS | 91 |

432 MohrCoulomb rheology | 94 |

433 AIDJEX elasticplastic rheology | 95 |

434 Hiblers viscousplastic theology | 97 |

435 Scaling of ice strength | 100 |

44 GRANULAR FLOW MODELS | 103 |

Equation of drift ice motion | 109 |

512 Vertical integration | 112 |

513 Drift regimes | 116 |

52 ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC DRAG FORCES | 118 |

522 Drag force formulae | 125 |

53 SCALE ANALYSIS AND DIMENSION ANALYSIS | 130 |

532 Dimensionless form | 133 |

533 Basin scales | 137 |

54 DYNAMICS OF A SINGLE ICE FLOE | 138 |

Free drift | 141 |

632 Inertial oscillations | 156 |

633 Periodic forcing | 158 |

634 Free drift velocity spectrum | 159 |

64 SPATIAL ASPECTS OF FREE DRIFT | 161 |

641 Advection | 163 |

Drift in the presence of internal friction | 165 |

711 Examples | 166 |

712 Frequency spectrum | 170 |

713 Landfast ice | 171 |

72 CHANNEL FLOW | 173 |

721 Creep | 174 |

722 Plastic flow | 175 |

73 ZONAL SEA ICE DRIFT | 177 |

winddriven case | 178 |

732 Steady state with ocean currents | 182 |

734 Viscous models | 184 |

735 Marginal ice zone | 185 |

736 Circular ice drift | 187 |

74 MODELLING OF ICE TANK EXPERIMENTS | 191 |

742 Case study | 194 |

Numerical modelling | 199 |

812 Numerical technology | 202 |

813 CalibrationValidation | 205 |

82 EXAMPLES OF SEA ICE DYNAMICS MODELS | 206 |

822 Hibler model | 208 |

823 The AIDJEX model | 211 |

824 The Baltic Sea model | 212 |

83 SHORTTERM MODELLING APPLICATIONS | 214 |

832 Sea ice forecasting | 217 |

84 LONGTERM MODELLING APPLICATIONS | 222 |

842 Antarctic regions | 224 |

Use and need for knowledge on ice drift | 229 |

92 PRACTICE | 232 |

93 FINAL COMMENTS | 236 |

Study problems | 239 |

CHAPTER 2 | 240 |

CHAPTER 4 | 241 |

CHAPTER 6 | 242 |

CHAPTER 7 | 243 |

References | 245 |

261 | |