Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 5, 2007 - Medical - 456 pages
1 Review
Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research. Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods employed, and offer an objective analysis of how the role of animals as spaceflight test subjects not only evolved, but subsequently changed over the years in response to a public outcry led by animal activists. It will explore the ways in which animal high-altitude and space flight research impacted on space flight biomedicine and technology, and how the results - both successful and disappointing - allowed human beings to then undertake that same hazardous journey with far greater understanding and confidence. This book is intended as a detailed yet highly readable and balanced account of the history of animal space flights, and the resultant application of hard-won research to space technology and astrobiology. It will undoubtedly become the ultimate authority on animal space flights.
  

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Selected pages

Contents

Taming the rocketsFrom wrath to research
1
Dreams of tomorrow
2
A minimum rocket
3
The work begins
4
Higher and heavier
5
Developing the A5
6
Severe setbacks and relocation
7
From Peenemunde to prison
9
X marks the monkey
190
Conducting tests of the biopack
191
The vanishing programme
195
Plans on hold
197
A cover story revealed
198
SALLY AMY AND MOE
199
REFERENCES
200
Pioneers in a weightless world
202

A rocket named Waterfall
10
The devastation begins
11
OPERATION PAPERCLIP
12
A brutal bombardment
13
Death in a Berlin bunker
15
A covert operation
16
Operation Backfire
17
V2 rockets launched by the Allies
18
WORKING FOR THE AMERICANS
19
An engineer named Korolev
20
Russia and the V2
22
Holloman and the Albert Hall of Fame
25
Punching a hole in the sand
27
Holloman is born
28
A PLACE KNOWN AS WHITE SANDS
29
Putting the pieces together
30
Jumping on the bandwagon
31
ANIMALS TO RIDE THE ROCKETS
32
The programmes guiding spirit
33
A unique proposal
34
Exploring the possibilities
35
An irresistible challenge
36
THE MEN THE MISSION AND THE MONKEYS
37
Project Albert
38
A SUITABLE FLIGHT SUBJECT
39
Training with a note of caution
40
Too much monkey business
41
Preparing Albert for flight
42
An end before a beginning
45
Identifying the problems
46
Henry and Simons try again
47
Simons departs and solutions are sought
48
THE FRUSTRATION OF FAILURE
50
AEROBEE FLIES
51
A successor vehicle
52
Breakthroughs at last
54
PATRICIA AND MICHAEL
55
The sad saga of an illtempered monkey
58
Pioneers of destinyThe suborbital dog flights
60
A programme in its infancy
62
Which animals would fly on rockets?
63
Training dogs to fly in rockets
64
THE FIRST DOG FLIGHT
66
Launch time draws near
67
Shaken but not stirred
68
Monitoring the health of the dogs
69
THE SECOND SERIES OF DOG FLIGHTS
70
One small step at a time
73
THINGS CHANGE IN 1956
74
The West and the worst kept secret
75
Oleg Gazenko becomes involved
76
A new and more powerful rocket
77
The first R2A dogs
78
Creating a biological orbital satellite
81
A programme ends another begins
82
REFERENCES
84
Highaltitude research
85
First animal passengers
86
The hazards of highaltitude flight
87
A fatal error
88
Research balloons and rockets
89
The return of David Simons
91
Problems continue
92
Monkeys on instalment plans
93
Summarising the flights
94
Project Man High is born
96
A man and a monkey?
98
Kumulus and Cirrus rockets take to the skies
99
Gerhard Zucker and his problem rockets
100
THE FASTEST MAN ALIVE
101
On the path to medical research
102
John Paul Stapps GeeWhizz machine
103
Fast rides and fractures
106
The chimps and Project Whoosh
107
Animals humans and gforces
108
FASTER THAN A SPEEDING BULLET
109
Faster and still faster
111
Forty times the pull of gravity
112
Days of the Daisy Track
113
Animal research continues
114
The rocket sled bears
115
Stapps work continues at Holloman
116
Chimpanzees begin training for space flight
117
REFERENCES
118
Able and Baker lead the way
121
A very small unit with limited space
122
A victim of the space age
125
PROJECT DOWN TO EARTH
126
Gordo aka Old Reliable
127
Ready for liftoff
128
Gordo takes flight
129
ABLE AND BAKER
130
A monkey is chosen
131
Miss Baker
133
A RIDE ABOARD A JUPITER
134
Set for launch
136
Flight results come in
138
Miss Baker makes friends
139
A muchloved monkey
141
The most famous dog in history
142
GETTING THE R7 TO FLY
144
Space dogs move centre stage
145
One very busy month
147
SELECTING THE DOG TO MAKE HISTORY
150
Preparing dogs for space travel
151
Which dog would fly?
153
Flight preparations
155
A sense of excitement
156
Prelaunch
157
LAIKA MAKES HISTORY
160
Critical problems arise
161
Prayers and protests for an unnamed dog
162
Hiding the facts
163
Laikas legacy
164
REFERENCES
165
Prelude to manned space flight
169
Devising an escape rocket
170
A monkey gets a name
171
Sam rides a Little Joe
172
An exemplary job
175
THE SECOND FLIGHT
176
From Sam to Miss Sam
177
OF MICE AND MEN
179
Background history of Project Corona
181
First flight of Discoverer
182
A nearpolar orbit and a predicament
183
The mice that soared
184
The first Corona camera
185
A TROUBLED PROGRAMME
187
Discoverer finally makes headway
188
Too much monkey business
189
Perfecting the hardware for manned flight
204
Dog watch
205
Publicising space flights
207
The Nedelin disaster
208
Pchelka and Mushka
209
Siberian weather and selfdestruct mechanisms
210
THE FINAL HURDLES
212
Dress rehearsal for a manned flight
213
THE FINAL CANINE MISSION
215
The passing of Korolev
216
Twentytwo days in space
217
THE FRENCH SPACE CONNECTION
219
The Veronique rockets
220
THE FIRST FLIGHTS
222
Pollux takes to the skies
225
Safe recovery
227
MONKEYS IN THE FLIGHT LINE
228
Selecting the candidates
229
Martine lifts off
230
POLISH ROCKETRY
234
REFERENCES
236
Biting the hand
239
A demonstration flight required
241
MERCURYREDSTONE 2
242
Trick or treat on the training machine
243
CHIMPANZEE SUBJECT 65
244
Choosing the best candidates
245
Ham is given the task
249
MR2 and a primate passenger
251
Monitoring the flight
252
Heading for a splashdown
253
A little shaken but safe
255
Death of a true space pioneer
257
A much beloved chimpanzee
258
UNDERSTANDING ENOS
259
Defeat and the road to recovery
260
man or chimpanzee?
261
One troublesome primate
262
A chimp behaving badly
263
ENOS IN ORBIT
264
The reluctant chimponaut
265
A voice from orbit
267
One very irritated space traveller
268
PAVING THE WAY FOR JOHN GLENN
269
GOLIATH AND SCATBACK
270
A rocket to carry men into space
271
Overcoming a bad reputation
272
A MONKEY CALLED SCATBACK
273
Further failures
274
REFERENCES
275
CosmosBionThe age of the biosatellites
276
The effects of space flight
278
STUDYING THE BIOMEDICAL PROBLEMS OF SPACE FLIGHT
279
NASAS BIOSATELLITES
280
The first primate biosatellite
282
COLD WAR COLLABORATION
284
American participation in CosmosBion
285
Experiments on CosmosBion 782
287
Cosmos 782 findings
289
COSMOS 936 AND 1129
290
COSMOS CONTINUES DESPITE COLD WAR
292
Monkeys fly on Cosmos
293
POLITICS AND BIOSATELLITES IN THE 1990s
297
The final Bion mission
299
Preparing monkeys for Bion 11
300
The tragedy of Bion 11
301
THE IMPACT OF BION
302
REFERENCES
303
End of an era
307
The T7A rocket
308
Mission experiments
309
Choosing the canine candidates
310
PROJECT GEMINI
311
TORTOISES IN A RACE TO THE MOON
312
Trouble on the outbound journey
313
More tortoises to the moon
315
Preparation for flight
317
OF ROCKETS AND POCKET MICE
318
Tiny space travellers
319
Bound for the moon
320
More mice on Skylab
321
WEAVING WEBS IN SPACE
323
Studying spiders
324
Return to Earth
326
Coulston takes over
328
A new animal facility
329
Awareness and protests grow
330
Preventable losses
331
An arbitrary and capricious decision
333
End of an anthropoid era
334
REFERENCES
335
Shuttling into space
337
Solving the problems
338
Shuttle life science begins
339
SOME SERIOUS MONKEY BUSINESS
341
Spacelab experiments
342
The noname monkeys
343
TRAGEDY AND A LENGTHY HIATUS
344
Rats and the meaning of life
345
The very reluctant astronaut
346
SOME SURPRISING DEVELOPMENTS
347
The first Spacelab life sciences mission
348
Spacelab flies again
349
RODENTS LEAD THE WAY IN RESEARCH
351
Tanks tests and transparent fish
352
Flying fish and hornworms
354
Spacelab for the final time
355
Rats in hiding
357
Weightlessness and the development of muscles
358
A dwindling population
359
Postflight solutions
360
The Russian quail egg story
361
Beatles in orbit?
362
CHINA RESUMES BIOLOGICAL FLIGHTS
363
Talking of taikonauts
364
A programme shrouded in mystery
365
TRAGEDY STRIKES AGAIN
366
Not a place for stressedout scorpions
367
Shenzhou flights continue
368
REFERENCES
370
Epilogue
372
US monkey research flights
375
Soviet space dog programme
379
US biological rocket flights 19461960
383
French biological rocket flights 19611967
387
Chinese T7 sounding rocket launches
388
Bion research flights
389
Space shuttle life science orbital flights
390
Index
397
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

About the author (2007)

Colin Burgess is a recognised historian in the field of space literature and has carried out extensive research on the history of animal space flights over many years. Chris Dubbs also carried out comprehensive research on Soviet animal flights. He was selected by the New Mexico Museum of Space History to serve as Guest Curator for their upcoming exhibit on the Soviet space dogs.

Bibliographic information