Treatise on Mineralogy: Or, The Natural History of the Mineral Kingdom, Volume 1 (Google eBook)

Front Cover
A. Constable and Company, Edinburgh, and Hurst, Robinson, and Company, London, 1825 - Mineralogy
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Contents

Theory of the System
10
Nomenclature
11
Characteristic
12
Physiography
13
Idea of Natural History
14
Method of studying the Natural History of the
15
PART I
19
Minerals decomposed and imperfectly formed
20
Simple Mineral
22
Mixed Mineral
23
Division of the NaturalHistorical Properties
24
SECTION I
27
27 Object of Crystallography
28
Edges
29
Homologous or Equal Edges
30
Simple and Compound Forms
31
Tangent Planes
32
Homologous Sections
33
Axes
35
Principal and subordinate Axes
36
Upright Position
37
Regularity
38
Degrees of Regularity
39
Classification of Simple Forms
40
The Rhombohedron
41
Pyramids in general
43
Isosceles Foursided Pyramids
44
Scalene Foursided Pyramids
45
Isosceles Sixsided Pyramids
46
Scalene Sixsided Pyramids
47
5C Scalene Eightsided Pyramids
48
57 The Tetrahedron
49
The Hexahedron
50
The Octahedron
51
Tetragonaldodecahedrons
52
C3 The Monogrammic Tetragonaldodecahedron
53
Pentagonaldodecahedrons
54
Tetrahedral Pentagonaldodecahedrons
55
Icositetrahedrons in general
56
Trigonalicositetrahedrons
57
Tetrahedral Trigonalicositetrahedrons
58
Octahedral Trigonalicositetrahedrons
59
Digrammic Tetragonalicositetrahedrons
60
Trigrammic Tetragonalicositetrahedrons
61
Pentagonalicositetrahedrons
62
Tetracontaoctahedrons
63
Observations
64
Derivation
66
First Process of Derivation
67
Third Process
68
Position of the Derived Forms
69
Limits
70
Fundamental Form
71
Derivations from the Scalene Foursided Pyramid 88 Derivation of more acute and more obtuse Pyramids of similar bases with the Fundamental Form
72
Ratio between the Derived and the Fundamental Form
73
Series of Scalene Foursided Pyramids whose bases are similar to the base of the Fundamental Form
74
Limits of the Series of Scalene Foursided Pyramids
77
Derivation of Scalene Foursided Pyramids of dissimilar transverse Sections
78
The Ratio of the Diagonals of the Bases is de pendent on m
81
Ratio of the Derived and the Fundamental Form
82
Series of Derived Pyramids of a dissimilar trans verse Section with that of P Other method of deriving Pyramids of the same kind
84
Subordinate Series
89
Horizontal Prisms
92
Series of Horizontal Prisms and their limits In clination of the Axis
93
Derivation of Homogeneous Forms
97
Ratio between the Derived and the Fundamen tal Form
98
Series of Isosceles Foursided Pyramids
99
Limits of the Series
101
Derivation of Scalene Eightsided Pyramids
102
The bases of the Scalene Foursided Pyramids
104
Series of Scalene Eightsided Pyramids
105
Subordinate Series
107
depend upon m 104
108
Ratio of the Derived Rhombohedrons
109
Series of Rhombohedrons
112
Derivation of Scalene Sixsided Pyramids
113
Pyramids depend on m
116
Series of Scalene Sixsided Pyramids
118
Subordinate Series
121
117 Derivation of Isosceles Sixsided Pyramids
124
Derivations from the Hexahedron 119 Different Positions of a moveable Plane
125
Production of the Forms of several Axes
128
The Octahedron
129
The Tetrahedral Pentagonaldodecahedrons
142
OF COMBINATIONS
148
Edges of Combination
163
Rhombohedral Combinations
173
Developement of llhombohedral and Dirhombo
179
Pyramidal Combinations
192
Hemiprismatic Combinations
199
Tessular Combinations
207
OF THE IMPERFECTIONS OF CRYSTALS IN RESPECT TO THEiB FOHM 158 Two kinds of this Imperfection
209
Deviations from Regularity depending upon the Formation of theIndividuals themselves
210
Deviations from Regularity depending upon the Contact with other Individuals
216
Of the Structure ofMineral? 161 Explanation of Structure
219
Cleavage
221
Direction of Cleavage
222
Character of Cleavage
223
Faces of Cleavage parallel to Faces of Crystalli sation
224
Form of Cleavage
225
Forms of Cleavage distinguished according to the quality of their Faces
227
Forms of Cleavage Members of the Series of Crystallisation
229
Designation and Nomenclature of the Forms of Cleavage
231
Fracture
232
Faces of Fracture
233
Character of Fracture
234
CHAPTER III
235
Striated Faces of Crystallisation
236
Diverse qualities of the Faces of Crystallisation
238
177 Faces of Composition
240
Regular and Irregular Composition
242
Irregular Composition Groupe and Geode
252
Accidental Imitative Shapes
258
Particles of Composition
265
Composition is of little value in Natural History
273
197 Series in the Differences of Lustre
281
Metallic Colours
283
Nonmetallic colours
284
Series of Colours
292
Several other peculiarities in the occurrence of Colours
293
The Streak
296
Degrees of Transparency
297
CHAPTER II
298
State of Aggregation
299
20a Hardness
300
Specifie Gravity
307
Magnetism
310
Taste
311
Odour
312
PART II
314
Degrees of Difference
315
217 Mutual relations of the NaturalHistorical Pro perties in certain Individuals
317
Individuals brought under the idea of Identity
318
Connexion of several Series of Individuals
320
Species
324
Transitions
325
Homogeneity from the Transitions
326
Principle of Classification
329
Degrees of NaturalHistorical Resemblance
330
Genus
331
Mineral Kingdom
334
Order
337
PART III
346
Object of the Systematic Denomination
347
Properties of the Systematic Denomination
349
Object of the Names
351
Name of the Order
352
Selection of the Names of the Orders
354
Signification of the Names of the Orders
355
Name of the Genus
358
Denomination of the Species
360
Representation of the Species through its Denomi nation
361
Systematic Nomenclature how to be judged of
363
Trivial Nomenclature
365
PART IV
368
Natural and Artificial Characters
369
Properties of the Characters
370
Absolute and conditioned Characteristic Marks
373
Arrangement of the Characters of the Species
374
No Characteristic before the System
379
Base of a perfect Characteristic
381
Use of the Characteristic
383
Determination of Individuals by means of the Characteristic Example
384
Immediate and mediate Determination Example
388
Base of the mediate Determination
390
Characters of the Classes Orders Genera and Species
391

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 329 - ... science had before suffered from heterogeneous principles. The principle of classification consists in the resemblance of natural properties, since in every science the classification must rest upon such relations as are objects of the science. On the different degrees of resemblance are founded the higher ideas of the theory of the system. An assemblage of species connected by the highest degree of natural-historical resemblance is termed a genus ; an assemblage of similar genera an order ;...
Page 385 - In this case, both hardness and specific gravity are prominent characters, and exclude the individual at once from the first and third, but not from the second class : with the characters of this class, its other properties also perfectly agree. Hence the individual belongs to the second class. Comparing the properties of the individual with the characters of the orders in the second class ; hardness and specific gravity will be found too great for the order Haloide ; hardness too great for the orders...
Page 304 - Every person, however little accustomed, will experience a very marked difference, if comparatively trying in this way any two subsequent members of the above scale, and thus the difference in their hardness will be easily perceived. A short practice is sufficient for rendering these perceptions more delicate and perfect so that in a short time it is possible to determine differences in the hardness very much less than those between two subsequent members of the scale. "Upon these observations is...
Page 357 - ... names of the orders he has invented but two which are entirely new, having employed as many designations from ancient mineralogy as would answer the purpose. The names receive their signification in agreement with the ideas of the orders; thus pyrites embraces the minerals hitherto called by that name. A mineral which may with propriety bear the name of a metal must really be a metal, or it must present the properties peculiar to metals. Mica signifies a mineral which may be cleaved with facility...
Page 387 - Scheelium-ore hy its too great hardness, and too little specific gravity ; from the genera Tantalum-ore, Uranium-ore, Cerium-ore, Chrome-ore, Iron-ore, and Manganese-ore, by hardness and specific gravity, both of them being too great; as also by its uncoloured streak, which only agrees with that genus from which the individual differs most by its hardness and specific gravity. From all this we infer that the individual cannot belong to any other than to the fourth genus, and that we are therefore...
Page 305 - ... file, and determined accordingly. " The process of this determination is as follows: " First, we try, with a corner of the given mineral, to scratch the members of the scale, beginning from above, in order that we may not waste unnecessarily the specimens representing lower members. After having thus arrived at the first, which is distinctly scratched by the given mineral, we have recourse to the file, and compare upon it the hardness of this degree, that of the next higher degree, and of the...
Page 304 - ... alone is not sufficient, if we intend to make a more sure and extensive application of the characters that may be taken from hardness, than that which has hitherto been common in Mineralogy. " But if we take several specimens of one and the same mineral, and pass them over a fine file, we shall find that an equal force will everywhere produce an equal effect, provided that the parts of the mineral in contact with the file be of a similar size, so that the one does not present to the file a very...
Page 383 - Characteristic may be applied, and it will at the same time point out what other characters are still wanting; so that a mere inspection of the mineral, or a very easy experiment, as for instance, to try the streak upon a file, or still better, upon a plate of porcelain biscuit, will very often be sufficient. The given individual is now carried through the subordinate characters of the classes, orders, genera, and species, one after the other, comparing its properties with the characteristic marks...
Page 384 - ... a high degree of specific gravity, particularly if the appearance be not metallic ; and a high degree of hardness. The observation of these will immediately decide whether an individual can belong to any particular class, order, genus, or species. It is understood, that if it be not thereby excluded, the other characters must next be examined, till either an excluding one be found, or if not, the individual may be considered as belonging to that class, order, &c. with which it has been compared...
Page 385 - But the appearance is not metallic ; therefore the colour of the individual is quite indifferent ; that is, this conditional characteristic mark does not affect the individual, and consequently cannot decide. Since the appearance is not metallic, the individual must exhibit adamantine or imperfect metallic lustre. The first will be found, particularly in the fracture. The following characteristic marks refer to minerals of a red, yellow, brown, or black streak ; and as the individual gives none of...

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