Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 4, Spagyrical Discovery and Invention: Apparatus, Theories and Gifts

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Cambridge University Press, Sep 25, 1980 - Science - 804 pages
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The fifth volume of Dr Needham's immense undertaking, like the fourth, is subdivided into parts for ease of assimilation and presentation, each part bound and published separately. The volume as a whole covers the subjects of alchemy, early chemistry, and chemical technology (which includes military invention, especially gunpowder and rockets; paper and printing; textiles; mining and metallurgy; the salt industry; and ceramics).
  

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Contents

List of Illustrations page
xiii
List of Tables
xxiii
List of Abbreviations
xxv
Acknowledgements
xxix
Authors Note
xxxi
ALCHEMY AND CHEMISTRY continued page i
1
i The laboratory bench p
10
2 The stoves lu and tsao p
11
i The Salernitan quintessence p
122
ii Ming naturalists p
132
iii Thang burntwine p
141
iv Liang frozenout wine p
151
v From icy mountain to torrid still p
155
vi Oils in stills the rose and the flamethrower p
158
9 Laboratory instruments and accessory equipment p
162
g Reactions in aqueous medium p
167

3 The reactionvessels ting tripod container cauldron and kuei box casing container aludel p
16
4 The sealed reactionvessels shen shih aludel lit magical reaction chamber and yaofu chemical pyx p
22
5 Steaming apparatus waterbaths cooling jackets condenser tubes and temperature stabilisers p
26
6 Sublimation apparatus p
44
7 Distillation and extraction apparatus p
55
ii The distillation of seawater p
60
iii East Asian types of still p
62
iv The stills of the Chinese alchemists p
68
v The evolution of the still p
80
vi The geographical distribution of still types p
103
8 The coming of Ardent Water p
121
A The theoretical background of elixir alchemy with Nathan Sivin p
210
2 The spectrum of alchemy p
220
4 The alchemist as accelerator of cosmic process p
242
5 Cosmic correspondences embodied in apparatus p
279
6 Protochemical anticipations p
298
i Comparative macrobiotics p
323
BIBLIOGRAPHIES
510
GENERAL INDEX
693
Table of Chinese Dynasties
761
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About the author (1980)

Joseph Needham FRS (1900-1995) was the founder of the Science and Civilisation in China project.

Nathan Sivin is professor of Chinese culture and of the history of science at the University of Pennsylvania.

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