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adnate aestivation albumen alternate animals anthers apex appear axil axis bark base belong blossom Botany bracts branches calyx capsule carbonic acid carpels cells cellular circle commonly composed compound consists corolla cotyledons cross-section dehiscence deposit destitute developed dioecious distinct drupe ducts embryo enlarged epidermis Exogenous Family fertile filaments fleshy floral envelopes flower foliage fruit furnished genus germination grow growth herbs imbricated inner juice kind layers leaf leaves lobes matter monoecious nature nearly nourishment one-celled opposite ordinary organs ovary ovules oxygen parenchyma parietal placentae peculiar perianth petals petiole pistil placenta plants plumule pollen portion produced raceme radicle receptacle roots seed sepals separate showing shrubs simple single soil sometimes species spiral sporangium spores stalk stamens starch stem stigma stipules structure styles Subord summit surface thickened tion transverse trees tropical tube usually vegetable Vertical section walls whole wood woody tissue
Page 34 - ... same time, the water in the vessel will become slightly sweet; showing that a small quantity of syrup has passed through the pores of the membrane into the water without, while a much larger portion of water has entered the tube. The water will continue to enter the tube, and a small portion of syrup to leave it, until the solution is reduced to the same strength as the liquid without. If a solution of gum, salt, or any other substance, be employed instead of sugar, the same result will take...
Page 338 - raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society from seeds taken from the stomach of a man, whose skeleton was found thirty feet below the surface of the earth, at the bottom of a barrow which was opened near Dorchester. He had been buried with some coins of the Emperor Hadrian ; and it is therefore probable that the seeds were sixteen or seventeen hundred years old.
Page 360 - Algae exhibit, and that all these motions are arrested by narcotics or other poisons — the narcotic and acrid poisons even producing effects upon vegetables respectively analogous to their different effects upon the animal economy — we cannot avoid attributing to plants a vitality, and a power of making movements tending to a determinate end, not differing in nature, perhaps, from those of the lower Animals.
Page 25 - The cells vary greatly in size, not only in different plants, but in different parts of the same plant. The largest are found in aquatics, and in such plants as the Gourd, where some of them are as much as one thirtieth of an inch in diameter. Their ordinary diameter is about ffa or TJlj of an inch.
Page 376 - ... combine the subordinate groups into larger natural assemblages, and these into still more comprehensive divisions, so as to embrace the whole vegetable kingdom in a methodical arrangement. All the characters which plants present, that is, all the points of agreement or difference, are employed in their classification ; those which are common to the greatest number of plants being used for the primary grand divisions ; those less comprehensive for subordinate groups, &c. ; so that the character...
Page 376 - ... or description of each group, when fully given, actually expresses all the known particulars in which the plants it embraces agree among themselves, and differ from other groups of the same rank. This complete analysis being carried through the system, from the...
Page 349 - ... cellular Marchantia-like frond. The globular cell produces in its interior a number of minute vesicles, in each of which is developed a spiral filament, coiled up in the interior. At a certain epoch the globular cell bursts and discharges the vesicles, and the spiral filaments moving within the vesicles at length make their way out of them and swim about in the water, displaying a spiral or heliacal form, and consisting of a delicate filament with a thickened...
Page 183 - ... bundles ; or the increased size of .the coming leaf-bud will snap them ; or, if these causes are not in operation, a gust of wind, a heavy shower, or even the simple weight of the lamina, will be enough to disrupt the small connections and send the suicidal member to its grave. Such is the history of the fall of the leaf.
Page 434 - Herbs or shrubs, with alternate or opposite leaves. — Calyx of four or five more or less united sepals, either free from or more or less adherent to the ovary, persistent. Petals as many as the sepals, rarely wanting. Stamens as many, commonly twice as many, or rarely three or four times as many, as the sepals.
Page 211 - While animals," says the most eminent botanist of this country, " consume the oxygen of the air, and give back carbonic acid, which is injurious to their life, this carbonic acid is the principal element of the food of vegetables, is consumed and decomposed by them, and its oxygen restored for the use of animals. Hence the perfect adaptation of the two great kingdoms of living beings to each other ; — each removing from the atmosphere what would be noxious to the other ; — each yielding to the...