Analyzing Oppression (Google eBook)
Oxford University Press, Mar 30, 2006 - Philosophy - 296 pages
Analyzing Oppression presents a new, integrated theory of social oppression, which tackles the fundamental question that no theory of oppression has satisfactorily answered: if there is no natural hierarchy among humans, why are some cases of oppression so persistent? Cudd argues that the explanation lies in the coercive co-opting of the oppressed to join in their own oppression. This answer sets the stage for analysis throughout the book, as it explores the questions of how and why the oppressed join in their oppression. Cudd argues that oppression is an institutionally structured harm perpetrated on social groups by other groups using direct and indirect material, economic, and psychological force. Among the most important and insidious of the indirect forces is an economic force that operates through oppressed persons' own rational choices. This force constitutes the central feature of analysis, and the book argues that this force is especially insidious because it conceals the fact of oppression from the oppressed and from others who would be sympathetic to their plight. The oppressed come to believe that they suffer personal failings and this belief appears to absolve society from responsibility. While on Cudd's view oppression is grounded in material exploitation and physical deprivation, it cannot be long sustained without corresponding psychological forces. Cudd examines the direct and indirect psychological forces that generate and sustain oppression. She discusses strategies that groups have used to resist oppression and argues that all persons have a moral responsibility to resist in some way. In the concluding chapter Cudd proposes a concept of freedom that would be possible for humans in a world that is actively opposing oppression, arguing that freedom for each individual is only possible when we achieve freedom for all others.
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actions African American androcentric argue behavior beliefs beneﬁts capitalism cause chapter choices choose claim coercion cognitive colonial concept crimes cultural deﬁne deﬁnition deformed desires difﬁcult discrimination domestic domestic violence dominant economic inequality economic oppression equal example explain fact false consciousness feminist ﬁnd ﬁrms ﬁrst ﬁt forces of oppression freedom gender genocide group membership group-based Hegel human indirect forces individual inequality inﬂicted injustice intentional justiﬁed kind labor Marx menís methodological individualism Mia Hamm motivated nation neocolonial nomic nonvoluntary social groups norms objection oneís oppressed groups oppression of women oppressor political positive freedom pression privileged psychological forces psychological harm rape reason recognition recognize requires resistance to oppression segregation sense sexual sexual slavery signiﬁcant situation slave slavery social constraints social institutions society speciﬁc stereotype threat stereotypes structures suffer sufﬁcient theory of oppression threat of violence trauma unjust victims voluntary wage gap workers
Page 5 - NATURE hath made men so equal in the faculties of the body and mind, as that, though there be found one man sometimes manifestly stronger in body or of quicker mind than another, yet when all is reckoned together the difference between man and man is not so considerable as that one man can thereupon claim to himself any benefit to which another may not pretend as well as he.
Page 9 - ... a social tyranny more formidable than many kinds of political oppression, since, though not usually upheld by such extreme penalties, it leaves fewer means of escape, penetrating much more deeply into the details of life, and enslaving the soul itself.
Page 17 - It arose simply from the fact that from the very earliest twilight of human society, every woman (owing to the value attached to her by men, combined with her inferiority in muscular strength) was found in a state of bondage to some man. Laws and systems of polity always begin by recognizing the relations they find already existing between individuals.