This book provides a clear foundation, based on physical biology and biomechanics, for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion. The author also communicates a sense of the awe and fascination that comes from watching the grace, speed, and power of animals in motion.
Movement is a fundamental distinguishing feature of animal life, and a variety of extremely effective mechanical and physiological designs have evolved. Common themes are observed for the ways in which animals successfully contend with the properties of a given physical environment across diversity of life forms and varying locomotor modes. Understanding the common principles of design that span a diverse array of animals requires a broad comparative and integrative approach to their study. This theme persists throughout the book, as various modes and mechanisms of animal locomotion are covered. Since an animal's size is equally critical to its functional design, the effects of scale on locomotor energetics and mechanics are also discussed.
Biewener begins by examining the underlying machinery for movement: skeletal muscles used for force generation, skeletons used for force transmission, and spring-like elements used for energy savings. He then describes the basic mechanisms that animals have evolved to move over land, in and on the surface of the water, and in the air. Common fluid dynamic principles are discussed as background to both swimming and flight. In addition to discussing the locomotor mechanisms of complex animals, the locomotor movement of single cells is also covered. Common biochemical features of cellular metabolism are then reviewed before discussing the energetic aspects of various locomotor modes. Strategies for conserving energy and moving economically are again highlighted in this section of the book. Emphasis is placed on comparisons of energetic features across locomotor modes. The book concludes with a discussion of the neural control of animal locomotion. The basic neurosensory and motor elements common to vertebrates and arthropods are discussed, and features of sensori-motor organization and function are highlighted. These are then examined in the context of specific examples of how animals control the rhythmic patterns of limb and body movement that underlie locomotor function and stability.
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I used it to obtain a better understanding of the biomechanics of quadruped (and biped) gait. With just a little physics, the author explains why quadrupeds (i.e. horses) change gait when changing speed (i.e. from walk to trot to gallop).
Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion: All 781 Plates from the ...
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Physical and biological properties and principles related to animal movement
12 Environmental media
13 Physics and energetics of movement
14 Biomechanics of locomotor support
the importance of size
16 Dimensions and units
Muscles and skeletons the building blocks of animal movement
formation of lamellipodia and pseudopodia for traction and locomotor work
63 Dynamics of actin nucleation polymerization and degradation
64 Cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell movement
65 Cellsurface receptors mediate sensorilocomotor behavior of unicellular organisms
Jumping climbing and suspensory locomotion
generating mechanical power
72 Scaling of jump performance
73 Other mechanisms for increasing jump distance
Movement on land
support and swing phases
interaction of limb posture and ground reaction force
34 Locomotor gaits
35 Maneuverability versus stability
36 Stride frequency and stride length versus speed and size
37 Massspring properties of running
38 Froude number and dynamic similarity
39 Inferring gait and speed of fossil animals
potential and kinetic energy changes during locomotion
311 Muscle work versus force economy
312 Tendon springs and muscle dampers
Movement in water
42 Inertia viscosity and Reynolds number
drag and streamlines
movement at high Reynolds number
45 Jetbased fluid propulsion
the reversibility of flow
surface swimming striding and sailing
48 Muscle function and force transmission in swimming
Movement in air
51 Lift drag and thrust in flight
52 Power requirements for steady flight
53 Gliding flight
54 Flapping flight
55 Flight motors and wing anatomy
56 Maneuvering during flight
57 Unsteady mechanisms
61 Organization of the cytoskeleton in animal cells
74 Other morphological adaptations for jumping
77 Suspensory locomotion at larger size
Metabolic pathways for fueling locomotion
citric acid cycle and cytochrome oxidative phosphorylation
respirometry measurements of oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production
86 Sources and time course of energy usage during exercise
87 Endurance and fatigue
88 Intermittent exercise
89 Other adaptations for increased aerobic capacity
Energy cost of locomotion
92 Energy cost versus body size
93 Ectothermic versus endothermic energy patterns
94 Energy cost of incline running
95 Cost of swimming
96 Cost of flight
97 Locomotor costs compared
Neuromuscular control of movement
101 Sensory elements
102 Sensorimotor integration via local reflex pathways
force speed and endurance
a basic feature of sensorimotor neural circuits
the role of central pattern generators
106 Two case studies of motor control
ACTIVELY ANIMATED ANIMALS: Animal Locomotion -- Fish 207 (4): 568 ...
Animal locomotion is a complex coordinated activity. It is powered by molecular engines manifest as muscular tissue. Motion is effected through the action ...
jeb.biologists.org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 207/ 4/ 568
Biewener , aa 2003: Animal Locomotion. Oxford University Press ...
Biewener, aa 2003: Animal Locomotion. Oxford University Press. 281 pp. $45. (paperback). ISBN 0 19 85002X. Reviewed by Stan L. Lindstedt, Department of ...
www.blackwell-synergy.com/ doi/ pdf/ 10.1111/ j.1439-0310.2004.01020.x
Chicago Journals - The Quarterly Review of Biology
Most books on animal locomotion, however, have been designed for either specialists or ... Fortunately, Animal Locomotion has stepped into this void, ...
www.journals.uchicago.edu/ cgi-bin/ resolve?QRB790104065
Articulate - The leader in rapid e-learning and communications
www.nyas.org/ ebrief/ mediaRedirect.asp?mediaID=1342
Undergraduate Biology at Harvard University: Research
OEB - Animal Locomotion The Energetics and Mechanics of Cross-Country Skiing: ... OEB - Animal Locomotion Taking Fitness to the Streets: Can maximal Aerobic ...
A Biomechanical Bookshelf--Alphabetical List Abbott, av and dg ...
(1977) Mechanics and Energetics of Animal Locomotion. London: Chapman and Hall. ..... (1977) Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion. London: Academic Press. ...
www.sicb.org/ dl/ serve.php3?file=78.1.rtf
OUP: UK General Catalogue
This theme persists throughout the book, as various modes and mechanisms of animal locomotion are covered. Since an animal's size is equally critical to its ...
www.oup.co.uk/ isbn/ 0-19-850023-8
sciencedirect - Current Biology : Mechanics of animal movement
aa Biewener, Animal Locomotion, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2003). ... J. Gray, Animal Locomotion, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London (1968). ...
linkinghub.elsevier.com/ retrieve/ pii/ S0960982205009012
Dinosaur locomotionbeyond the bones : Nature
We reluctantly settled on one animation that captured the basic principles of animal locomotion (see Movie 1 in Supplementary Information). ...
www.nature.com/ nature/ journal/ v440/ n7082/ full/ 440292a.html
Reinert-Alumni Library: BIO 212 Course Guide
Principles of Animal Locomotion: by R. mcneill Alexander ... You can also find more books on animal locomotion in general, like those on reserve listed ...
220.127.116.11/ research/ BIO212.htm