Animal Locomotion

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Oxford University Press, Jun 19, 2003 - Science - 281 pages
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This book provides a clear foundation, based on physical biology and biomechanics, for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion. The author also communicates a sense of the awe and fascination that comes from watching the grace, speed, and power of animals in motion.
Movement is a fundamental distinguishing feature of animal life, and a variety of extremely effective mechanical and physiological designs have evolved. Common themes are observed for the ways in which animals successfully contend with the properties of a given physical environment across diversity of life forms and varying locomotor modes. Understanding the common principles of design that span a diverse array of animals requires a broad comparative and integrative approach to their study. This theme persists throughout the book, as various modes and mechanisms of animal locomotion are covered. Since an animal's size is equally critical to its functional design, the effects of scale on locomotor energetics and mechanics are also discussed.
Biewener begins by examining the underlying machinery for movement: skeletal muscles used for force generation, skeletons used for force transmission, and spring-like elements used for energy savings. He then describes the basic mechanisms that animals have evolved to move over land, in and on the surface of the water, and in the air. Common fluid dynamic principles are discussed as background to both swimming and flight. In addition to discussing the locomotor mechanisms of complex animals, the locomotor movement of single cells is also covered. Common biochemical features of cellular metabolism are then reviewed before discussing the energetic aspects of various locomotor modes. Strategies for conserving energy and moving economically are again highlighted in this section of the book. Emphasis is placed on comparisons of energetic features across locomotor modes. The book concludes with a discussion of the neural control of animal locomotion. The basic neurosensory and motor elements common to vertebrates and arthropods are discussed, and features of sensori-motor organization and function are highlighted. These are then examined in the context of specific examples of how animals control the rhythmic patterns of limb and body movement that underlie locomotor function and stability.
  

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I used it to obtain a better understanding of the biomechanics of quadruped (and biped) gait. With just a little physics, the author explains why quadrupeds (i.e. horses) change gait when changing speed (i.e. from walk to trot to gallop).

Contents

Physical and biological properties and principles related to animal movement
1
12 Environmental media
2
13 Physics and energetics of movement
4
14 Biomechanics of locomotor support
5
the importance of size
10
16 Dimensions and units
14
Muscles and skeletons the building blocks of animal movement
15
22 Skeletons
38
formation of lamellipodia and pseudopodia for traction and locomotor work
155
63 Dynamics of actin nucleation polymerization and degradation
156
64 Cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell movement
159
65 Cellsurface receptors mediate sensorilocomotor behavior of unicellular organisms
161
Jumping climbing and suspensory locomotion
163
generating mechanical power
164
72 Scaling of jump performance
167
73 Other mechanisms for increasing jump distance
172

23 Summary
45
Movement on land
46
support and swing phases
47
interaction of limb posture and ground reaction force
51
34 Locomotor gaits
54
35 Maneuverability versus stability
58
36 Stride frequency and stride length versus speed and size
61
37 Massspring properties of running
64
38 Froude number and dynamic similarity
65
39 Inferring gait and speed of fossil animals
66
potential and kinetic energy changes during locomotion
67
311 Muscle work versus force economy
70
312 Tendon springs and muscle dampers
71
313 Summary
76
Movement in water
78
42 Inertia viscosity and Reynolds number
79
drag and streamlines
82
movement at high Reynolds number
85
45 Jetbased fluid propulsion
95
the reversibility of flow
96
surface swimming striding and sailing
101
48 Muscle function and force transmission in swimming
106
49 Summary
110
Movement in air
111
51 Lift drag and thrust in flight
112
52 Power requirements for steady flight
118
53 Gliding flight
121
54 Flapping flight
126
55 Flight motors and wing anatomy
134
56 Maneuvering during flight
144
57 Unsteady mechanisms
146
58 Summary
150
Cell crawling
151
61 Organization of the cytoskeleton in animal cells
152
74 Other morphological adaptations for jumping
179
76 Climbing
180
77 Suspensory locomotion at larger size
184
78 Summary
185
Metabolic pathways for fueling locomotion
187
oxygen consumption
189
anaerobic metabolism
190
citric acid cycle and cytochrome oxidative phosphorylation
192
respirometry measurements of oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production
195
86 Sources and time course of energy usage during exercise
196
87 Endurance and fatigue
202
88 Intermittent exercise
203
89 Other adaptations for increased aerobic capacity
205
810 Summary
206
Energy cost of locomotion
207
92 Energy cost versus body size
214
93 Ectothermic versus endothermic energy patterns
220
94 Energy cost of incline running
221
95 Cost of swimming
223
96 Cost of flight
224
97 Locomotor costs compared
226
98 Summary
229
Neuromuscular control of movement
230
101 Sensory elements
231
102 Sensorimotor integration via local reflex pathways
237
force speed and endurance
245
a basic feature of sensorimotor neural circuits
253
the role of central pattern generators
254
106 Two case studies of motor control
258
107 Summary
262
References
264
Index
279
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About the author (2003)

Professor Andrew A. Biewener Concord Field Station, MCZ Harvard University Old Causeway Road Bedford, MA 01730 001 781-275-1725 x13 001 781-275-9613 abiewener@oeb.harvard.edu Charles P. Lyman Professor of Biology, Harvard University Editor, Journal of Experimental Biology; editorial boards of Journal of Morphology; Physiological Biochemistry and Zoology and Journal of Experimental Zoology; (currently: past-President, American Society of Biomechanics)

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