The Ganga: Water Use in the Indian Subcontinent (Google eBook)
From time immemorial the Bengal Delta had been an important maritime des- nation for traders from all parts of the world. The actual location of the port of call varied from time to time in line with the natural hydrographic changes. From the early decades of the second millennium AD, traders from the European con- nent also joined the traders from the Arab countries, who had been the Forerunners in maritime trading with India. Daring traders and fortune seekers from Denmark, Holland, Belgium and England arrived at different ports of call along the Hooghly river. The river had been, in the meantime, losing its pre-eminence as the main outlet channel of the sacred Ganga into the Bay of Bengal, owing to a shift of ?ow towards east near Rajmahal into the Padma, which had been so long, carried very small part of the large volume of ?ow. On a cloudy afternoon on August 24, 1690 the British seafarer Job Charnock rested his oars at Kolkata and started a new chapter in the life of a sleepy village, bordering the Sunderbans which was ‘a tangled region of estuaries, rivers and water courses, enclosing a vast number of islands of various shapes and sizes. ’ and infested with a large variety of wild animals. In the language of the British Nobel Laureate (1907) Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936). ???? ???? Thus the midday halt of Charnock grew a city.
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agreement alluvial April augmentation bank erosion Bay of Bengal beneﬁts Bhagirathi Bhagirathi-Hooghly Bihar Brahmaputra Calcutta Port construction countries cumecs cusecs dams Delhi deposited Dhaka Dhulian difﬁcult district diversion downstream dredging dry season dry-season ﬂow effects embankment estuary experts Farakka Barrage Farakka Barrage Project feeder canal ﬁrst ﬁve ﬂood ﬂow ﬂow at Farakka Ganga at Farakka Ganga basin Ganga ﬂow Ganga water Government of India gradually ground-water Haldia Hardinge Bridge Hooghly increased India and Bangladesh irrigation Jalangi Jangipur Jyoti Basu Kolkata land lean season left bank Malda Meander Meghna million cubic minimum monsoon months Murshidabad navigation channel Nepal offtake Padma Pakistan period Prime Minister proposal Rajmahal reduced region right bank river basin river ﬂows salinity schemes side silt siltation Springer Science+Business Media stream sufﬁcient Table tidal tides Treaty tributaries upland discharge upper reaches upstream Uttar Pradesh water at Farakka water resources West Bengal