A Comparison of the Heat Balance of Lakes in Winter
Study of fifty-three lakes in Wisconsin during the winter of 1962-63 showed that differences of lake morphometry produce large lake-to-lake variations in many of the heat balance terms and in ice phenology. Lake depth and size are the most significant morphometric features influencing heat balance and phenology. Differences in lake morphometry produce a larger variation in ice thickness in one area than a latitude difference of 250 miles. The mean temperature of the water on the lake closing date and maximum ice thickness are significantly correlated with mean fetch of the lakes. A multiple regression analysis shows that mean depth is not significantly correlated with these two factors. Lake depth influences the change in mean temperature of the water, especially during cooling and for a short period after opening. Shallow lakes close before deep lakes. Opening date is influenced by both size and depth of the lake. The lakes are good climatic indicators provided morphometric factors which produce non-climatic effects are taken into account. Maximum ice thickness and ice phenology data are useful climatic indicators. (Author).
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A Seasonal Patterns The Major Lakes
Latent Heat Storage in the Ice
Early Wastage Period o
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advection air temperature albedo Big St Birge Bowen ratio caused change in heat CM CM CM CM CM H computed correlated cvj cvj Escanaba factors February Figure Germain Dam gray ice H CM CM H H H Heat balance data heat flow ice cover ice increase ice wastage ice-increase period Juday lake depth Lake Mendota Lake Waubesa Lake Wingra lake-to-lake differences lake-to-lake variations lakes closed large lakes ly/day Madison Lakes major lakes March maximum ice thickness mean depth mean fetch mean temperature melted minor lakes Mystery Lake Nebish negative net-radiation noon ONCO overcast Pallette period of ice Ragotzkie rate of ice ratio rH H sampling sensible heat shown in Table small lakes small shallow lakes snow depth snowfall solar cell solar radiation Spruce stations survey Table 15 Trout Lake Vilas County Lakes volumetric heat capacity wastage period Waubesa winter Wisconsin