Basic Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Operators
Water and wastewater operators need an understanding of chemistry to properly carry out the chemical phases of treatment, including coagulation, sedimentation, softening, and disinfection.
Knowledge of basic chemistry is also required to pass operator certification examinations. Operators will get the training they need in this chemistry primer tailored just for operators of drinking water or wastewater systems.
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Measurements in Chemistry
Chemical Equations 37
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0zone Alkalinity ammonia anode Avogadro number bicarbonates boiling point calcium carbonate Calcium hydroxide carbon atoms cathode cause chemical reaction chlo chloramines chlorine dioxide coagulation colloidal particles corrosion covalent bonds covalent compounds crystallization density disinfection dissolved effective electricity electrolytes element energy equation equivalent weight example formation formula weight free residual chlorine gases Gram equivalent Gram equivalent weight H0Cl H30+ ion hardness hydration hydrocarbons hydrogen atoms hydrogen sulfide hydronium ion hydroxide hypochlorite hypochlorous acid insoluble ionic compounds ionization iron known lime liquid manganese mass metals mg/L mole molecular weight Na0H NaCl nonelectrolytes nonmetals number of electrons number of water odors oxidation numbers oxygen ozone polar covalent positively charged precipitation pressure produce properties proteins protons reactants redox saturated shell sodium chloride solid soluble solvent standard substance sulfate sulfur temperature tion vapor volume Water and Wastewater water molecules water of crystallization water solution