Reason and Argument
This book presents a clear and philosophically sound method for identifying, interpreting, and evaluating arguments as they appear in non-technical sources. It focuses on a more functional, real-world goal of argument analysis as a tool for figuring out what is reasonable to believe rather than as an instrument of persuasion. Develops a precise, step-by-step method for analyzing arguments about a variety of topics -- shows how to rewrite arguments in a format that makes them clearer and makes their evaluation easier; and then how to evaluate the rewritten argument. Illustrates methods by applying them to both serious and humorous arguments about different topics as they appear in a variety of contexts -- e.g., newspaper and magazine editorials and columns, short essays, informal reports of scientific results, etc. Uses simple, relatively non-controversial examples to illustrate the basic ideas and concepts, and then offers more complicated and controversial examples for challenging applications. For anyone interested in identifying, interpreting, and evaluating arguments as they appear in non- technical sources.
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Language and Truth
Soundness and Strength
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abortion accuracy premise ambiguous argu argument analysis argument is valid argument stoppers arguments following capital punishment causal arguments causal claims causal statements Chapter cogency conclusion consider criticism death penalty deductively sound deductively strong deductively valid depends described discussion essay evidence example Exercises and Study fact factors fallibilism false fetus fetuses flag burning harms and benefits homosexuality ill formed implicit premises inductively issues Jimmy Olsen lung cancer male marijuana measured property ment moral arguments moral statements objection overall value passage pattern of argument person positively correlated principle principle of charity reason to believe reason to think representativeness premise result Rochester Times-Union sample population sentences simple standard form standard pattern Study Questions suspend judgment target population target property tences testimonial arguments things tion topic true premises truth value unnecessary premise unsound Utne Reader valid argument voted women words wrong