The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, Fourth Edition (Google eBook)

Front Cover
CRC Press, Oct 31, 2006 - Science - 984 pages
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Refineries must not only adapt to evolving environmental regulations for cleaner product specifications and processing, but also find ways to meet the increasing demand for petroleum products,particularly for liquid fuels and petrochemical feedstocks. The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, Fourth Edition offers a 21st century perspective on the development of petroleum refining technologies.

Like its bestselling predecessors, this volume traces the science of petroleum from its subterranean formation to the physicochemical properties and the production of numerous products and petrochemical intermediates. Presenting nearly 50 percent new material, this edition emphasizes novel refining approaches that optimize efficiency and throughput. It includes new chapters on heavy oil and tar sand bitumen recovery, deasphalting and dewaxing processes, and environmental aspects of refining, including refinery wastes, regulations, and analysis. The text also features revised and expanded coverage of instability and incompatibility, refinery distillation, thermal cracking, hydrotreating and desulfurization, hydrocracking, and hydrogen production.

A unique, well-documented, and forward-thinking work, this book continues to present the most complete coverage of petroleum science, technology, and refining available. The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, Fourth Edition provides an ideal platform for scientists, engineers, and other professionals to achieve cleaner and more efficient petroleum processing methods.

  

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Contents

History and Terminology
3
12 MODERN PERSPECTIVES
10
13 DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY
12
14 NATIVE MATERIALS
14
142 HEAVY OIL
16
144 WAX
17
145 ASPHALTITE
18
147 BITUMINOUS ROCK AND BITUMINOUS SAND
19
1656 EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION
483
1657 PROCESS OPTIONS FOR HEAVY FEEDSTOCKS
484
REFERENCES
485
Thermal Cracking
487
172 EARLY PROCESSES
492
173 COMMERCIAL PROCESSES
493
1731 VISBREAKING
494
1732 COKING PROCESSES
499

149 NATURAL GAS
20
15 MANUFACTURED MATERIALS
22
154 TAR AND PITCH
23
155 COKE
24
162 RESINS AND OILS
25
17 OIL PRICES
26
171 PRICING STRATEGIES
27
173 FUTURE OF OIL
28
Classification
31
22 CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
33
222 CLASSIFICATION BY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
34
223 CORRELATION INDEX
36
224 DENSITY
37
225 API GRAVITY
38
227 CARBON DISTRIBUTION
39
229 UOP CHARACTERIZATION FACTOR
40
2211 POUR POINT
41
24 RESERVOIR CLASSIFICATION
43
242 FUTURE
44
REFERENCES
45
Origin and Occurrence
47
32 ORIGIN
48
322 BIOCENIC ORIGIN
50
3221 Deposition of Organic Matter
52
3223 Nature of the Source Material
54
3224 Transformation of Organic Matter into Petroleum
57
3225 Accumulation in Reservoir Sediments
58
3226 In Situ Transformation of Petroleum
63
323 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ABIOGENIC THEORY AND THE BIOGENIC THEORY
66
324 RELATIONSHIP OF PETROLEUM COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES
67
33 OCCURRENCE
69
331 RESERVES
70
332 CONVENTIONAL PETROLEUM
73
333 NATURAL GAS
74
334 HEAVY OIL
76
REFERENCES
79
Kerogen
83
43 COMPOSITION
87
45 ISOLATION
88
46 METHODS FOR PROBING KEROGEN STRUCTURE
89
462 FUNCTIONAL GROUP ANALYSIS
90
464 THERMAL METHODS
91
465 ACIDCATALYZED HYDROGENOLYSIS
92
48 KEROGEN MATURATION
94
REFERENCES
96
Exploration Recovery and Transportation
99
52 EXPLORATION
100
521 GRAVITY METHODS
101
522 MAGNETIC METHODS
102
523 SEISMIC METHODS
103
524 ELECTRICAL METHODS
104
526 RADIOACTIVE METHODS
105
53 DRILLING OPERATIONS
106
532 DRILLING RIG
107
533 DRILLING RIG COMPONENTS
109
54 WELL COMPLETION
110
55 RECOVERY
111
551 PRIMARY RECOVERY NATURAL METHODS
114
552 SECONDARY RECOVERY
117
553 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
119
56 PRODUCTS AND PRODUCT QUALITY
133
57 TRANSPORTATION
135
REFERENCES
140
Recovery of Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen
143
62 OIL MINING
150
622 HOTWATER PROCESS
152
623 OTHER PROCESSES
155
63 NONMINING METHODS
157
631 STEAMBASED PROCESSES
159
632 COMBUSTION PROCESSES
160
633 OTHER PROCESSES
163
REFERENCES
173
Composition and Properties
175
Chemical Composition
177
72 ULTIMATE ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION
178
73 CHEMICAL COMPONENTS
179
731 HYDROCARBON CONSTITUENTS
181
7311 Paraffin Hydrocarbons
182
7312 Cycloparaffin Hydrocarbons Naphthenes
184
7313 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
185
7314 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
187
7321 Sulfur Compounds
188
7322 Oxygen Compounds
190
7324 Metallic Constituents
192
7325 Porphyrins
193
74 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION BY DISTILLATION
195
741 GASES AND NAPHTHA
197
742 MIDDLE DISTILLATES
198
743 VACUUM RESIDUA 1050F+
200
REFERENCES
201
Fractional Composition
205
82 DISTILLATION
207
821 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
210
822 REDUCED PRESSURES
211
823 AZEOTROPIC AND EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION
213
83 SOLVENT TREATMENT
214
831 ASPHALTENE SEPARATION
216
8312 Influence of the Degree of Dilution
219
8314 Influence of Contact Time
220
84 ADSORPTION
222
842 FRACTIONATION METHODS
223
8422 ASTM Methods
227
85 CHEMICAL METHODS
229
852 MOLECULAR COMPLEX FORMATION
231
8522 Thiourea Adduction
232
8524 Adduct Structure
233
8525 Adduct Properties
234
86 USE OF THE DATA
235
REFERENCES
237
Petroleum Analysis
239
92 PETROLEUM ASSAY
240
93 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
243
932 DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY
244
933 VISCOSITY
246
934 SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL TENSION
249
935 METALS CONTENT
251
94 THERMAL PROPERTIES
252
942 LIQUEFACTION AND SOLIDIFICATION
255
943 CARBON RESIDUE
257
944 ANILINE POINT
258
945 SPECIFIC HEAT
259
949 PRESSUREVOLUMETEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIPS
260
95 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
261
954 DIELECTRIC Loss AND POWER FACTOR
262
96 OPTICAL PROPERTIES
263
962 OPTICAL ACTIVITY
264
971 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY
265
973 MASS SPECTROMETRY
266
982 SIMULATED DISTILLATION
269
983 ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY
270
984 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY
271
985 IONEXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY
273
986 HIGHPERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
274
987 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
275
910 USE OF THE DATA
276
REFERENCES
277
Structural Group Analysis
281
102 METHODS FOR STRUCTURAL GROUP ANALYSIS
283
1021 PHYSICAL PROPERTY METHODS
286
10212 Waterman Ring Analysis
288
10213 Density Method
289
10215 DispersionRefraction Method
290
1 0217 Molecular WeightRefractive Index Method
291
10218 Miscellaneous Methods
292
1022 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS
293
10221 Infrared Spectroscopy
294
10222 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
297
10223 Mass Spectrometry
301
10224 Electron Spin Resonance
303
10225 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
304
10226 XRay Diffraction
305
1023 HETEROATOM SYSTEMS
307
10232 Oxygen
308
10234 Metals
309
REFERENCES
310
Asphaltene Constituents
315
112 SEPARATION
316
113 COMPOSITION
319
114 MOLECULAR WEIGHT
324
115 REACTIONS
328
116 SOLUBILITY PARAMETER
333
117 STRUCTURAL ASPECTS
335
REFERENCES
341
Structure of Petroleum
345
122 MOLECULAR SPECIES IN PETROLEUM
346
1222 RESIN CONSTITUENTS
347
12223 Molecular Weight
349
12233 Molecular Weight
350
124 STABILITY OR INSTABILITY OF THE CRUDE OIL SYSTEM
355
125 EFFECTS ON RECOVERY AND REFINING
364
1251 EFFECTS ON RECOVERY OPERATIONS
365
1252 EFFECTS ON REFINING OPERATIONS
368
REFERENCES
370
Instability and Incompatibility
373
132 INSTABILITY AND INCOMPATIBILITY IN PETROLEUM
377
133 FACTORS INFLUENCING INSTABILITY AND INCOMPATIBILITY
378
1332 DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY
379
1334 VISCOSITY
380
1336 POUR POINT
381
1337 ACIDITY
382
1339 WATER CONTENT SALT CONTENT AND BOTTOM SEDIMENT AND WATER BSW
383
135 EFFECT OF ASPHALTENE CONSTITUENTS
388
REFERENCES
391
Refining
393
Introduction to Refining Processes
395
142 DEWATERING AND DESALTING
398
143 EARLY PROCESSES
399
144 DISTILLATION
400
1441 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
401
1442 MODERN PROCESSES
402
14422 Vacuum Distillation
403
14423 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation
405
1452 MODERN PROCESSES
408
14523 Coking
409
146 CATALYTIC METHODS
411
1462 MODERN PROCESSES
413
1463 CATALYSTS
414
147 HYDROPROCESSES
415
14721 Hydrofining
418
1482 MODERN PROCESSES
419
14823 Catalysts
420
149 ISOMERIZATION
421
1493 CATALYSTS
422
1410 ALKYLATION PROCESSES
423
14103 CATALYSTS
424
14113 CATALYSTS
425
14122 DEWAXING
426
1413 REFINING HEAVY FEEDSTOCKS
427
1414 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
431
1415 PETROCHEMICALS
433
REFERENCES
434
Refining Chemistry
437
152 CRACKING
439
1522 CATALYTIC CRACKING
440
1523 DEHYDROGENATION
443
1531 HYDROCRACKING
444
154 ISOMERIZATION
445
155 ALKYLATION
446
157 PROCESS CHEMISTRY
447
1572 HYDROCONVERSION CHEMISTRY
456
1573 CHEMISTRY IN THE REFINERY
457
15732 Hydroprocessing
460
REFERENCES
462
Distillation
465
162 PRETREATMENT
467
163 ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM DISTILLATION
468
1631 ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION
470
1632 VACUUM DISTILLATION
473
164 EQUIPMENT
475
1642 PACKINGS
477
165 OTHER PROCESSES
478
1652 RERUNNING
479
1654 SUPERFRACTIONATION
480
1655 AZEOTROPIC DISTILLATION
481
17321 Delayed Coking
500
17322 Fluid Coking
503
17323 Flexicoking
505
1733 PROCESS OPTIONS FOR HEAVY FEEDSTOCKS
507
17333 Comprehensive Heavy Ends Reforming Refinery CherryP Process
508
17334 Decarbonizing
509
17335 ETII Process
510
17337 Fluid Thermal Cracking FTC Process
511
17338 High Conversion Soaker Cracking HSC Process
512
17339 MixedPhase Cracking
515
173313 Tervahl T Process
517
173314 VaporPhase Cracking
518
Catalytic Cracking
521
182 EARLY PROCESSES
525
1831 FIXEDBED PROCESSES
526
18322 Model IV FluidBed Catalytic Cracking Unit
528
1833 MOVINGBED PROCESSES
529
1834 PROCESS OPTIONS FOR HEAVY FEEDSTOCKS
530
18342 Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking HOC Process
531
18343 Heavy Oil Treating HOT Process
532
18344 R2R Process
533
18346 Shell FCC Process
534
18347 SW Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process
536
184 CATALYSTS
537
1841 CATALYST TREATMENT
538
1851 REACTOR
539
1852 COKING
540
1853 CATALYST VARIABLES
542
1854 PROCESS VARIABLES
543
1855 ADDITIVES
544
Deasphalting and Dewaxing Processes
547
1921 DEASPHALTINC PROCESS
548
1922 PROCESS OPTIONS FOR HEAVY FEEDSTOCKS
554
19221 Deep Solvent Deasphalting Process
555
19222 Demex Process
558
19223 MDS Process
559
19224 Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction ROSE Process
560
19225 Solvahl Process
561
193 DEWAXING PROCESSES
562
REFERENCES
567
Hydrotreating and Desulfurization
569
202 PROCESS PARAMETERS AND REACTORS
577
2021 HYDROGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE
578
2025 FEEDSTOCK EFFECTS
579
2026 REACTORS
581
20262 Upflow ExpandedBed Reactor
582
20263 Demetallization Reactor Guard Bed Reactor
583
2031 AUTOFINING
584
2034 HYDROFINING
585
2035 ISOMAX
587
20391 Residuum Desulfurization and Vacuum Residuum Desulfurization Process
588
20392 Residfining Process
589
204 CATALYSTS
590
205 BIODESULFURIZATION
594
206 GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL POLISHING
595
REFERENCES
597
Hydrocracking
599
212 COMMERCIAL PROCESSES
605
2121 PROCESS DESIGN
606
2122 PROCESS OPTIONS FOR HEAVY FEEDSTOCKS
610
21223 HOil Process
612
21224 Hydrovisbreaking HYCAR Process
614
21226 IFP Hydrocracking Process
615
21227 Isocracking Process
616
21228 LCFining Process
617
21229 MAKfining Process
619
212211 Mild Hydrocracking Process
621
212212 MRH Process
622
212213 RCD Unibon BOC Process
623
212215 Residue Hydroconversion RHC Process
624
212217 Unicracking Process
625
212218 Veba Combi Cracking Process
627
213 CATALYSTS
628
REFERENCES
635
Hydrogen Production
637
222 PROCESSES REQUIRING HYDROGEN
640
2222 HYDROCRACKING
641
223 FEEDSTOCKS
642
224 PROCESS CHEMISTRY
643
225 COMMERCIAL PROCESSES
645
2251 HEAVY RESIDUE GASIFICATION AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER GENERATION
646
2252 HYBRID GASIFICATION PROCESS
647
2255 PYROLYSIS PROCESSES
648
2256 SHELL GASIFICATION PARTIAL OXIDATION PROCESS
649
2258 STEAMNAPHTHA REFORMING
651
22510 TEXACO GASIFICATION PARTIAL OXIDATION PROCESS
652
226 CATALYSTS
653
2262 SHIFT CONVERSION CATALYSTS
654
2263 METHANATION CATALYSTS
655
2271 WET SCRUBBING
656
2273 MEMBRANE SYSTEMS
658
REFERENCES
659
Product Improvement
661
232 REFORMING
662
2321 THERMAL REFORMING
664
2322 CATALYTIC REFORMING
665
23221 FixedBed Processes
668
23222 MovingBed Processes
672
233 ISOMERIZATION
673
2331 BUTAMER PROCESS
675
2333 HYSOMER PROCESS
676
2338 PENTAFINING PROCESS
677
2341 CASCADE SULFURIC ACID ALKYLATION
678
2342 HYDROGEN FLUORIDE ALKYLATION
679
235 POLYMERIZATION
680
2352 SOLID PHOSPHORIC ACID CONDENSATION
681
236 CATALYSTS
682
2362 ISOMERIZATION PROCESSES
683
REFERENCES
684
A Product Treating
685
242 COMMERCIAL PROCESSES
688
24211 Dualayer Distillate Process
689
24216 Mercapsol Process
690
24219 Solutizer Process
691
24221 Nalfining Process
693
2423 CLAY PROCESSES
694
24234 Continuous Contact Filtration Process
695
2424 OXIDATIVE PROCESSES
696
24243 Doctor Process
697
24245 Inhibitor Sweetening Process
698
24251 Deasphalting
699
24252 Solvent Refining
700
24253 Dewaxing
703
REFERENCES
706
Gas Processing
707
2511 GAS STREAMS FROM CRUDE OIL
708
2512 GAS STREAMS FROM NATURAL GAS
711
252 GAS CLEANING
712
253 WATER REMOVAL
719
2531 ABSORPTION
720
2533 USE OF MEMBRANES
721
254 LIQUIDS REMOVAL
722
2542 ABSORPTION
723
255 NITROGEN REMOVAL
724
257 ENRICHMENT
728
259 CLAUS PROCESS
729
REFERENCES
731
Products
733
262 GASEOUS FUELS
738
2622 MANUFACTURE
739
263 GASOLINE
742
2632 MANUFACTURE
743
2633 PROPERTIES AND USES
746
2635 ADDITIVES
748
264 SOLVENTS NAPHTHA
750
2642 MANUFACTURE
751
2643 PROPERTIES AND USES
753
265 KEROSENE
754
2651 COMPOSITION
755
2653 PROPERTIES AND USES
756
267 LUBRICATING OIL
758
2671 COMPOSITION
759
26721 Chemical Refining Processes
760
26724 Catalytic Dewaxing
761
26727 Older Processes
762
2673 PROPERTIES AND USES
763
268 OTHER OIL PRODUCTS
764
2682 INSULATING OIL
765
2683 INSECTICIDES
766
2691 LIME SOAP
767
2692 SODA SOAP
768
2610 WAX
769
26103 PROPERTIES AND USES
771
26112 MANUFACTURE
772
26113 PROPERTIES AND USES
774
2613 SULFONIC ACIDS
776
2614 ACID SLUDGE
777
REFERENCES
778
Petrochemicals
781
272 CHEMICALS FROM PARAFFINS
789
2722 NITRATION
790
2723 OXIDATION
791
2724 ALKYLATION
792
2725 THERMOLYSIS
793
2731 HYDROXYLATION
794
2732 HALOCENATION
796
2734 OXIDATION
797
275 CHEMICALS FROM ACETYLENE
799
277 INORGANIC PETROCHEMICALS
801
278 SYNTHESIS GAS
802
REFERENCES
803
Environmental Issues
805
Environmental Aspects of Refining
807
282 DEFINITIONS
809
283 ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS
811
2831 CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS
812
2834 RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT
813
2836 COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY ACT
814
2839 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION ACT
815
2841 GASEOUS EMISSIONS
818
2842 LIQUID EFFLUENTS
822
2843 SOLID EFFLUENTS
823
285 EPILOG
824
Refinery Wastes
827
292 PROCESS WASTES
830
2921 DESALTING
831
2922 DISTILLATION
832
2923 THERMAL CRACKING AND VISBREAKING
835
2924 COKING PROCESSES
836
2925 FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING
838
2926 HYDROCRACKING AND HYDROTREATING
839
2927 CATALYTIC REFORMING
842
2928 ALKYLATION
843
2929 ISOMERIZATION
845
29210 POLYMERIZATION
846
29211 DEASPHALTING
847
29212 DEWAXING
848
29213 GAS PROCESSING
849
293 TYPES OF WASTE
850
2931 GASES AND LOWER BOILING CONSTITUENTS
852
2932 HIGHER BOILING CONSTITUENTS
854
2933 WASTEWATER
855
2934 SOLID WASTE
857
295 REFINERY OUTLOOK
858
296 MANAGEMENT OF REFINERY WASTE
859
REFERENCES
860
Environmental Analysis
861
302 PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
862
303 LEACHABILITY AND TOXICITY
864
3041 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS
866
3042 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY METHODS
869
3043 GRAVIMETRIC METHODS
870
3044 IMMUNOASSAY METHODS
871
305 PETROLEUM GROUP ANALYSIS
872
3051 THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY
873
3053 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
874
3054 HIGHPERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
875
3055 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHYMASS SPECTROMETRY
876
306 PETROLEUM FRACTIONS
877
REFERENCES
880
Conversion Factors
883
Glossary
885
Index
921
Copyright

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Page 9 - And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, And the dust thereof into brimstone, And the land thereof shall become burning pitch. It shall not be quenched night nor day ; The smoke thereof shall go up for ever: From generation to generation it shall lie waste ; None shall pass through it for ever and ever.
Page 4 - Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. 14. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shall thou make in the ark, and shall pitch it within and without with pitch.

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