Molecular Embryology: How Molecules Give Birth to Animals

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CRC Press, Apr 2, 2002 - Medical - 212 pages
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Molecular Embryology explains in simple terms the molecular interactions that transform an egg to a complex embryo that in the end gives rise to a fully-formed animal. In doing so, the book covers one hundred and fifty years of experiments that have led to our present understanding of these molecular interactions. As the text progresses, the reader will gain a sense of the developmental similarities and differences between organisms. Students studying developmental biology and embryology will find this book an extremely useful introduction to the subject and will also appeal to anyone with an interest in the most recent advances in this largely undiscovered territory.
  

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Contents

CHAPTER ONE GROWTH OF AN EMBRYO IS FOUNDED ON REPEATED CELL DIVISION 1 Does a Vital Force Direct Animal Development?
1
The Division of Embryonic Cells
4
Cell Fate and Cell Lineage
7
Cell Division in the Threadworm
8
Cell Division in Fruit Flies
12
Cell Division in Frogs
17
Cell Division in Mouse Embryos
21
References
22
References
77
Further Readings
78
CHAPTER FIVE DIFFERENCES IN EMBRYONIC CELL COMPOSITION RESULT FROM ACTIVATION OF DIFFERENT GENES 79 Mendel Firs...
79
Mendels Results Led to the Discovery that Genes are Made of
83
Weismann Wrongly Suggested that Different Cells of an Embryo Contain Different Genes
88
Genes are Differentially Activated during Development
91
TwoStep Activation of Embryonic Genes
93
Specific Transcription Factors Are Keys to the Final Step in Gene Activation
96

Further Reading
23
CHAPTER TWO HOW AN EMBRYO ACQUIRES THE CORRECT SHAPE AS ITS CELLS DIVIDE 25 The Way a Cell Divides Can Determine the ...
25
Change in Cell Shape Localized Cell Division and Cell Death Can Influence the Shape of an Embryo
28
Secretion of Molecules by Cells Influences Embryonic Structure
30
Some Cells Migrate to Form Tissues in Distant Parts of the Embryo
31
Cell Adhesions Influence the Shape of the Embryo
34
Types of Cell Adhesion 37 The Importance of Cell Adhesion Molecules
37
References
39
Further Reading
40
CHAPTER THREE HOW DIFFERENCES IN MOLECULAR COMPOSITION BETWEEN EMBRYONIC CELLS ORIGINATE 41 Asymmetric Cell ...
41
Asymmetric Division and Cell Signaling in C Elegans
44
Uneven Subdivision of the Egg Cytoplasm in Drosophila
46
Asymmetric Division and Cell Signaling in Frogs
50
The Origin of Differences in Cell Composition in Mouse Embryos
53
References
54
Further Reading
55
CHAPTER FOUR SIGNAL MOLECULES INDUCE CHANGES IN CELL COMPOSITION THROUGHOUT VERTEBRATE DEVELOPMENT 57 H...
57
Neural Inductions
61
Induction of Eyes Feathers and Other Body Structures
64
Harrisons Experiments on Limb Formation
65
The Origin of Cells that Lay Down the Structure of a Chicks Wing
67
The Source of Signals that Induce the Structure of a Chicks Wing
70
Signaling Cell Position
73
Techniques for Studying the Action of Genes in Development
100
References
108
CHAPTER stx EXPERIMENTS ON DROSOPHILA REVEAL THAT SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ARE KEYS THAT UNLOCK EMBRY...
111
a Specific Transcription Factor that Initiates Gene Activation from Front to Rear
114
The Bicoid Protein Is a Morphogen
117
Changing Patterns of Gene Activity along the Length of the Drosophila Embryo
119
Patterns of Gene Activation down Each Side of the Drosophila Embryo
121
The Formation of Cells and Organs of Differing Structure in Drosophila
125
References
129
Further Reading
130
CHAPTER SEVEN THE FRONTIERS OF RESEARCH IN MOLECULAR EMBRYOLOGY 131 Signal Molecules and their Action
131
Recent Research on C Elegans
133
Recent Research on Drosophila
138
Recent Research on Xenopus
141
Recent Research on Mice
144
Recent Research on Limb Development
145
Afterthoughts
146
References
147
Further Reading
148
GLOSSARY
149
INDEX
159
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