Molecular Embryology: How Molecules Give Birth to Animals
Molecular Embryology explains in simple terms the molecular interactions that transform an egg to a complex embryo that in the end gives rise to a fully-formed animal. In doing so, the book covers one hundred and fifty years of experiments that have led to our present understanding of these molecular interactions. As the text progresses, the reader will gain a sense of the developmental similarities and differences between organisms. Students studying developmental biology and embryology will find this book an extremely useful introduction to the subject and will also appeal to anyone with an interest in the most recent advances in this largely undiscovered territory.
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CHAPTER ONE GROWTH OF AN EMBRYO IS FOUNDED ON REPEATED CELL DIVISION 1 Does a Vital Force Direct Animal Development?
The Division of Embryonic Cells
Cell Fate and Cell Lineage
Cell Division in the Threadworm
Cell Division in Fruit Flies
Cell Division in Frogs
Cell Division in Mouse Embryos
CHAPTER FIVE DIFFERENCES IN EMBRYONIC CELL COMPOSITION RESULT FROM ACTIVATION OF DIFFERENT GENES 79 Mendel Firs...
Mendels Results Led to the Discovery that Genes are Made of
Weismann Wrongly Suggested that Different Cells of an Embryo Contain Different Genes
Genes are Differentially Activated during Development
TwoStep Activation of Embryonic Genes
Specific Transcription Factors Are Keys to the Final Step in Gene Activation
CHAPTER TWO HOW AN EMBRYO ACQUIRES THE CORRECT SHAPE AS ITS CELLS DIVIDE 25 The Way a Cell Divides Can Determine the ...
Change in Cell Shape Localized Cell Division and Cell Death Can Influence the Shape of an Embryo
Secretion of Molecules by Cells Influences Embryonic Structure
Some Cells Migrate to Form Tissues in Distant Parts of the Embryo
Cell Adhesions Influence the Shape of the Embryo
Types of Cell Adhesion 37 The Importance of Cell Adhesion Molecules
CHAPTER THREE HOW DIFFERENCES IN MOLECULAR COMPOSITION BETWEEN EMBRYONIC CELLS ORIGINATE 41 Asymmetric Cell ...
Asymmetric Division and Cell Signaling in C Elegans
Uneven Subdivision of the Egg Cytoplasm in Drosophila
Asymmetric Division and Cell Signaling in Frogs
The Origin of Differences in Cell Composition in Mouse Embryos
CHAPTER FOUR SIGNAL MOLECULES INDUCE CHANGES IN CELL COMPOSITION THROUGHOUT VERTEBRATE DEVELOPMENT 57 H...
Induction of Eyes Feathers and Other Body Structures
Harrisons Experiments on Limb Formation
The Origin of Cells that Lay Down the Structure of a Chicks Wing
The Source of Signals that Induce the Structure of a Chicks Wing
Signaling Cell Position
Techniques for Studying the Action of Genes in Development
CHAPTER stx EXPERIMENTS ON DROSOPHILA REVEAL THAT SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ARE KEYS THAT UNLOCK EMBRY...
a Specific Transcription Factor that Initiates Gene Activation from Front to Rear
The Bicoid Protein Is a Morphogen
Changing Patterns of Gene Activity along the Length of the Drosophila Embryo
Patterns of Gene Activation down Each Side of the Drosophila Embryo
The Formation of Cells and Organs of Differing Structure in Drosophila
CHAPTER SEVEN THE FRONTIERS OF RESEARCH IN MOLECULAR EMBRYOLOGY 131 Signal Molecules and their Action
Recent Research on C Elegans
Recent Research on Drosophila
Recent Research on Xenopus
Recent Research on Mice
Recent Research on Limb Development
1Fig actin filaments adjacent adult amino acids anterior-posterior axis appear bacteria bicoid bicoid protein bind bithorax blastopore blastula cell adhesion molecule cell composition cell division cell membranes cells formed centrosomes chick embryos chromosomes cleavage furrow clone concentration culture cytoplasm daughter cells determined DNA molecules Drosophila Drosophila embryo early embryo ectoderm egg cell elegans embryo enzyme epidermal cells epidermis experiments extracellular fate fertilized egg frogs front gastrula gene activity germ cells give rise gradient growth factor Hence homeotic genes identical imaginal disc implanted induced injected interactions larva limb bud Mendel mesoderm cells messenger RNA mice microscope migrate morphogen mouse mutations nerve cells neural newt normal nuclei nucleotide sequence pair parent cell progeny cells protein rear receptor regions result RNA polymerase sea urchin segment signal molecules similar single cells specific transcription factors Spemann sperm structure studied suggested thorax tissues transcribed transcription factors transplanted vegetal pole vulva Xenopus