Plastic Injection Molding: Material Selection and Product Design Fundamentals (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 1997 - Technology & Engineering - 380 pages
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The second book in the Plastic Injection Molding series addresses the basics and the fine points of plastics materials and product design phases of the thermoplastic injection molding process. Complex technical matter is presented in clear, sequential narrative bites.
  

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Contents

Determining Product Requirements
223
TYPICAL PROJECT EXAMPLE
224
Phase 0
225
Phases 3 Through 8
226
DETERMINING ACTUAL REQUIREMENTS
227
Physical and Mechanical Aspects
231
Thermal Aspects
248
Electrical Aspects
249

THE SETUP SHEET
24
CONTROLLING SHRINKAGE
26
The Effects of Temperature Adjustments
29
The Effects of Pressure Adjustments
30
MINIMIZING MOLDEDIN STRESS
32
SUMMARY
33
QUESTIONS
34
The Language of Plastics
37
THERMOPLASTICS VERSUS THERMOSETS
42
Amorphous versus Crystalline
43
Elastomers
44
HOW PLASTICS ARE MADE
45
MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND DISTRIBUTION
46
SUMMARY
47
QUESTIONS
48
Reinforcements and Fillers
49
Fillers
53
SUMMARY
57
QUESTIONS
58
Comparing Amorphous and Crystalline Materials
59
Process Temperature Requirements Injection Unit
61
Process Temperature Requirements Mold
63
Liquid Crystalline Materials
66
SUMMARY
67
Basic Material Properties
69
Mechanical Properties
74
Thermal Properties
83
Electrical Properties
85
Environmental Concerns
88
SUMMARY
92
QUESTIONS
93
Applications and Properties of Specific Materials
95
Elastomers
103
STAR DIAGRAMS
106
SUMMARY
107
Determining Injection Molding Costs
135
Material Costs
136
Labor Costs
139
Tooling Costs
144
Adding It All Up
146
SUMMARY
147
QUESTIONS
148
Secondary Operations
149
WHEN TO CONSIDER SECONDARY OPERATIONS
150
When a Laborheavy Environment Exists
151
Hot Gas Welding
157
Induction Electromagnetic Bonding
158
Spin Welding Friction Welding
159
MACHINING OPERATIONS
160
Drilling and Tapping Thermosets
164
AUTOMATED SHAPE CUTTING
165
Laser
166
Applied Finishes
167
Inprocess Finishes
173
SUMMARY
177
Testing and Failure Analysis
179
Physical Testing
181
Mechanical Testing
186
Thermal Testing
189
FAILURE ANALYSIS
195
Differential Scanning Calorimeter
196
Calculating Glass Content
199
SUMMARY
201
QUESTIONS
202
The Product Design Session
203
What Takes Place?
204
Project Chart Samples
209
Why Projects Fail
216
SUMMARY
220
Weather and Exposure Limits
250
Safety and Environmental Issues
251
SUMMARY
252
QUESTIONS
253
Product Design Considerations
255
Uniform Wall Thickness Requirement
257
Knit Lines
258
Sharp Corners
259
Sink Marks
261
Warpage and Bowing
262
Draft
264
Ejector Pin Marks and Gate Location Restrictions
269
Gate Marks
270
Dimensions and Drawing Notes
271
WHAT THE VENDOR NEEDS
272
COMMON DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
276
PRODUCT DESIGN CHECKLIST
279
SUMMARY
281
QUESTIONS
283
Miscellaneous Determinations
285
MATERIAL HANDLING REQUIREMENTS
286
PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
287
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
288
SUMMARY
289
QUESTIONS
290
Selecting a Vendor
293
WHAT TO LOOK FOR
295
Basic Investigation
296
Familiarity
297
Capabilities
298
Responsibilities
299
QUALIFICATION FORM
300
SUMMARY
304
Prototype Overview
307
Fit
308
The Prototype Option
309
Casting
310
Which is Best?
312
SUMMARY
313
A Primer on Molds
315
THE INJECTION HALF OF THE MOLD
316
The Sprue Bushing
317
Flash
318
Ejector Plates
319
MOLD DESIGN BASICS
320
Runner Crosssection
321
Typical Tool Life
324
Ownership of the Mold and Other Tools
326
SUMMARY
328
QUESTIONS
329
Understanding Defects
331
WHAT CAUSES DEFECTS?
332
COMMON DEFECTS AND REMEDIES
333
Blisters
334
Brittleness
335
Clear Spots
336
Contamination
337
Crazing
338
Flash
339
Jetting
340
Shrinkage Excessive
341
Splay Silver Streaking
342
SUMMARY
343
Material Tradenames and Descriptions
345
Common Material Acronyms and Their Meanings
355
Material Rankings for Various Properties
359
Answers to Chapter Questions
361
Index
371
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