the Serbian Church on broader lines, and a new alignment towards the Catholic faith. Before the War, the Orthodox population of the Serbian Kingdom amounted to 2,880,000. With her new territorial conquests, the Serbian Church embraces at the present time about six millions of Orthodox within the limits of Jugo-Slavia. Therefore, the first task of the Serbian Church is the religious unification of all Serbians. This problem was discussed in the meeting of all the Serbian bishops, held at Belgrade, May 26, 1919. A decision could not be taken without a preliminary understanding with the Greek Patriarch. At the end of the same year, the Patriarch consented to renounce his jurisdiction over ten Metropolitan Sees of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Old Serbia and Macedonia upon the payment of an indemnity equivalent to $300,000. At the same time, the Serbian Government negotiated the exemption of the Metropolitan Sees of Zara and Cattaro from the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Cernowitz.12 The Serbian Orthodox bishops have also discussed the opportunity of reviving the ancient Patriarchate. According to Dr. B. Kazimirovia, the reestablishment of the Patriarchate is an historic necessity for the Serbian Church, because the Patriarch would be the centre of unity for all the Orthodox of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. A full scheme of the duties and prerogatives of the Patriarch was inserted in the Srpska Crkva (The Serbian Church), the Orthodox Serbian review of Sarajevo. In the month of October of last year the same review published a proclamation issued by the regent, Alexander, and Paul Marinkovic, Minister of Worship. According to this document, "the Patriarchate of Serbia is restored. Its titular, the successor of St. Sava, Arsenius, Daniel I., Joanniki, Macarius, Gabriel, Arsenius and other illustrious hierarchs will bear the name of Serbian Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of the Serbian, Croatian and Slovenian Kingdom."13

The restoration of the Patriarchate took place on August 30th (September 12th). Of course, the Serbian press expects from the change of a title the best results for the united Serbian Orthodox Church, and a renewal of religious life. In 1909 Dr. Sava Urosevic, Dean of the University of Belgrade, said: "Our Church is in arrears as concerns her task of edu

"F. Grlvec, Srbskt cerkvent (Serbian Ecclesiastical Problem), Cas, 1920, xlv pp. 85, 86, ID.; Pravoslavje (The Orthodoxy), LJubllana, 1918, pp. 89-92, In Slovenian. "Srptka Crkva, 1920, n. 5, pp. 193, 194.

cating the common people. Christian faith among us is only a series of ritual ceremonies. Our clergy are not awakening from their torpor, and they are unable to preserve the purity of their faith. The Serbian Church is not equal to her mission." 14

At the moment when we write, the relations between the two clerical orders have been embittered, because of the question of the second marriage of widowed priests. In 1907 the Dalmatian Bishop Nicodem Milas published a treatise about the sacerdotal consecration not being a canonical impediment to marriage. His daring assertion opposed the constant tradition of the Orthodox Church that does not allow the marriage of the priests after their consecration. The pamphlet of Milas gave rise to a lively polemic. In the congress of the low clergy, held at Belgrade, August 21 to 23,1919, the Serbian priests invited their bishops to sanction the second marriage of the widowed priests. But in a pastoral letter, signed by seven metropolitans and ten bishops (December 14, 1921), the Serbian episcopate rebuked the lower clergy for the request.15

Some Serbian Orthodox writers suggest a rapprochement with Rome. The reunion with the Catholic Church is to be discussed in the meeting of the Serbian episcopate, and has already found a sturdy defender in the person of Bishop Nicholas Velimirovic, the great friend and admirer of the Episcopalian Church of the United States.

The situation of the Catholic Church in Serbia has recently improved considerably, following the concordat of June 24, 1912, between Cardinal Merry del Val and the Serbian delegate, Milenec R. Vesnic. The concordat was incorporated in the Serbian Civil Code (July 2, 1912). Its first paragraph grants freedom to the Catholic Church in Serbia. The constitution of July 11, 1861, had already proclaimed freedom of worship on condition, however, that nothing be attempted against the welfare of the Orthodox Church. These words meant that conversions of Orthodox to the Catholic faith were strictly forbidden. The concordat abolishes this restriction and opens the frontiers of Serbia to Catholic missionaries. Other paragraphs concern the restoration of the Catholic archiepiscopal See of Belgrade—which had existed in the

"F. Grivec, op. cit.. p. 93. "SrpMka Crkva, April, 1920, p. 67.

fourth century—and of the diocese of Skopia (Uskub), which in 1745 was included in the diocese of Prizren.

Before the War, these dioceses contained 17,000 Catholics, ten parishes, twelve churches and fourteen secular priests. The State assigns an allowance of 16,000 dinari ($3,200) to the Archbishop of Belgrade and $2,000 to the Bishop of Skopia. The concordat is also concerned with the privileges of the Catholic clergy, the hierarchy, ecclesiastical goods, seminaries, the relations of the Catholics with Rome and of the use of the Slavic tongue in the liturgical prayers.

No doubt, the rights and life of the Catholic Church are satisfactorily guaranteed by the Serbian concordat. Some Orthodox writers even complain that too much freedom is allowed to Catholic Serbians, while the State exerts severe control over the Orthodox clergy.16 In spite, however, of some opposition, for the present, the Serbian Government seems disposed to observe the clauses of the concordat.

Still more important, the Orthodox clergy are voicing peace and concord. Bishop Nicholas Velimirovic writes that Catholic and Orthodox, with a common inheritance of sufferings, should exercise mutual tolerance in their denominational divergencies and mutual affection in the things which they hold in common. The former are only ten per cent.; the latter ninety per cent. Jugo-Slavia is convinced that a complete harmony will establish closer relations between the two clergies and the two Churches.

"I am fully convinced," he writes, "that to love rather than to logic belongs the primacy in the problem of the reunion of Christianity. We must unite in action, in our daily relations, and give each other a helping hand in charitable works. This mutual help will make us tolerant, and tolerance, in turn, will open the way to reunion and find us a common logical foundation. . . . All we Jugo-Slavs are sure that there will be harmony and unanimity between the two priesthoods, the two confessions and the two Churches in the future Serbian State."17

These words from the pen of an Orthodox Serbian bishop are consoling. They are more authoritative than the vulgar

"G. Rozman, Srbskl konkordat Iz I. 19U, Can, 1920, Ljubljana, 1920, i., pp. 9-29, 87. Cardinal N. Marinl, La concluslone del Concordato fra la Santa Sede e la Serbia. Bessarlone, Rome, 1914, pp. 26-32.

"The Soal of Serbia, pp. 70-72.

invective of some bigoted Orthodox of the old sort, who deprecate the reunion of Eastern and Western Christianity as the ruin of the political grandeur of the Southern Slavs." It is a widespread calumny that the Catholic Church is responsible for the national misfortunes of the Slavic peoples.10 The truth is some Slavic nations lost their independence and underwent a lasting martyrdom under the intolerance and shortsighted policy of an Orthodox nation. Poland, for example, in her national distress, under the tyrannical yoke of Orthodox Russia, found the bulwark of her national spirit in the Catholic Church and in the Catholic clergy. The first and constant apostle of the union and solidarity of all the Slavic peoples was a Catholic Croatian priest, Sergius Krizanic (seventeenth century). The pioneer of the literary renaissance of the Southern Slavs was a Catholic bishop, Strossmayer, founder of the Academy of Sciences and of the University of Zagreb. During the War, the Catholic clergy of Slovenia and Croatia paid dearly for their Slavic patriotism. If the apostles of the Slavs came from Greece, they went also to Rome for help, guidance, approval and encouragement. In its most brilliant periods, the history of the Slavs is intertwined with the history of the Papacy. And now that Orthodox Serbia may bathe in the azure waves of the Adriatic, near the shores whence civilization and Christianity came to her ancestors, an opportunity is given the Orthodox Serbian Church to renew her spirit and life in a closer contact with the Church that needs no unity for herself, but is the source of unity for the other Churches withering in their national isolation.20

u See the fanatical pamphlet of Dr. Grubac, Pravoslavic I unit tit Srbt braco. euvaile pradedovsku veru (The Orthodoxy and the Union, or, Serbians, My Brothers, Be True to the Faith of Tour Ancestors). Karlowitz, 1920. In Serbian.

u The Servian People. Their Past Glory and Their Destiny. New York, 1910, vol. i., p. 344.

"For a complete bibliography concerning the Serbian Orthodox Church, see: A. Palmlerl, Cattolieitmo e ortodotsla nella Serbia, Florence, 1921, pp. 21-23, 41-44, 64. R. M. Grujic, Pravotlavna Srptka Crkva (The Serbian Orthodox Church), In Serbian. Belgrade, 1921, pp. 180-196.

LILY LORE.

BY HARRIETTE WILBUR.

HE lily, more than any other flower, appeals to the aesthetic, the spiritual, the religious side of man's mind. The very word, used as an adjective, is always synonymous with pale, delicate, white, pure: "The earth was pushing the old, dead grass with lily hand from her bosom," says Phoebe Cary in one of her poems, using the word with a pretty double meaning. The mental picture created by the word lily is always that of a white, trumpet-like blossom, shooting from its earthy-brown body and towering high above the green leaves surrounding it, typical of the human soul in its strivings heavenward, and universally accepted as the emblem of innocence and purity. This mental picture persists, in spite of the wellknown fact that many members of the lily family are not white at all, but purple-spotted, orange-striped, yellow-tipped or red-leaved, the most garish and worldly flowers to be found anywhere. For the mind of man has intuitively idealized the large white species (Lilium candidum), originally from the Levant, but cultivated for centuries in garden-beds and flowerpots; it is "the lily," while the more showy species must be designated by specific names.

The Greeks and Romans regarded it as a symbol of purity, and among many nations it was the emblem of virginity and innocence. Because of its spiritual character, this flower is the one most frequently seen in religious paintings, being dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, to many of the saints and to the Angel Gabriel and other heavenly messengers. As one writer has said: "It is especially fitting that the lily should represent the Virgin Mary, for as the venerable Bede pointed out long ago, the pure white petals signify her spotless body, and the golden anthers within, typify her soul sparkling with divine light. Hence, its common name of Madonna Lily. It is also the Annunciation Lily, because in Italian art the Angel Gabriel, when appearing before the Virgin, holds in his hand a branch of the blossoms. Because of its association with

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