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Excepting the first 50 or 65 feet, which probably represents the Pleistocene, the strata noted above are mainly Miocene in age.
The strata noted beneath represents the Cretaceous, and judging by the fossils, mainly the Matawan or Ripley division thereof. The Miocene interval of 150 feet between the depths of 475 feet and 625 feet at Moore's Bridges, which includes the great Miocene diatom bed, seems wanting at Lambert's Point. This indicates considerable unconformity between the Miocene and the underlying Cretaceous.
ARTESIAN WELL AT BRIDGETOX.
Elevation, 40 feet; diameter, 6 inches ; depth, 126 feet
Joseph W. Pratt furnishes the following record of strata in a well bored by him at the Cumberland county asylum, near the old fair grounds, at Bridgeton:
*There were no rock nor gravel specimens from the Moore's Bridges well with which to correlate these litholgically.
Surface and yellow gravel, o feet to 12 feet.
Yellow loam and sand 12 " " 78
Sand, color of brown sugar '. 79 " " 88"
White pebbly gravel, 88 " " 92"
Slightly water-bearing, at 70 to 92 feet,
Light brown quicksand, 92 " "118"
Open quality sand,colorofbtown sugar, water-bearing, 118 " "126"
This well was finished with an 8-foot strainer at the base. The quality of the water is said to be excellent, and there is also said to be plenty of it, as a test was made, when 40 to 50 gallons a minute were pumped, this amount being up to the capacity of the pump used.
The location is not far from that of a well put down at the residence of Orlando Cook, on the western border of Bridgeton,* and which was abandoned at the depth of 90 feet, because of the small amount of water obtainable, which water was first noted at the depth of 80 feet. The same scant water-supply was found in this well at an equivalent depth—the surface at both wells being said to be of about the same elevation.
No specimens of the borings were preserved, and without these the writer would not, with present data in hand, venture to certainly determine the geological age of all the strata penetrated, but as the lowest of these are possibly Miocene, he includes it under the heading of "wells in Miocene strata." The more shallow well of 1893 was reported under the heading of "Wells in the Superficial Strata."
ARTESIAN WELL AT CEDARVILLE.
Elevation, 15 (?) feet; diameter, 3 inches; depth, 93 feet.
Haines Bros. report a well bored by them for John H. Diament, at Cedarville, Cumberland county, eight miles south of Bridgeton. Its depth is 93 feet. Haines Bros. say the material passed through was all white sand to the bottom, where a black clay was touched. Water was first found at a depth of 20 feet and continued the rest of the way down.
The black clay touched at the bottom was probably Miocene clay. The water-bearing sand is probably also of Miocene age,
* Erroneously stated to be at East liridgeton in the Annual Report for 189), page 418.
and if so, the horizon would seem to be the same as supplies wells at Weymouth (depth, ,40 feet, elevation, 25 feet), and Mays Landing (depth, 196 feet, elevation, 20 feet).
WELL AT GREENBANK, N. J.
Elevation 20 feet; depth. 54 feet
This well is located on the banks of the Mullica river at the store of Wm. Sooy, who some years since furnished the writer the record below:
Total Thickness Depth.
Gravel and sand, with hard water, to 13 feet = 13 feet
Clay, 20 ' = 33"
Blaek elay 5 feet to 12 " = 45"
Gravel with water to 54
It may be remarked that a blaek tenaeeous elay outcrops at Herman City, also on the Mullica river, one mile westward.
ARTESIAN WELL AT SMITH'S LANDING.
Elevation, 30 feet; diameter', 6 inches ; depth, 704 feet.
This well was prospected beyond this to the depth of 715 feet.
Water rises to within 17 feet of the surface.
During the summer Uriah White put down a well at the Atlantic county asylum, near to and south of Smith's Landing, the location being more accurately stated as at Dolphin station, on the branch railroad from Pleasantville to Somer's Point. The depth of the well as finished is 704 feet, though the boring was prospected beyond this to 715 feet, where the top of a clay stratum was found. The top of the water-bearing sands occur at 640 feet. The well is six inches in diameter and is finished at the base with a 4^-inch strainer 41 feet in length. This draws water from between the depths of 663 and 704 feet. The water rises to within 17 feet of the surface. When pumped at the rate of 100 gallons a minute the water level was lowered to 23 feet from the surface, but quickly rose again to 17 feet when the pumping was stopped. The water-horizon is the equivalent
of that which we have heretofore designated as the 800-foot horizon at Atlantic City, which is four miles to the eastward, nearly directly on line with the natural dip of the beds.
Through the courtesy of the contractor and his assistants we have been furnished with a full series of the borings taken every 10 feet in depth all the way down. From an examination of this series, supplemented by considerable information verbally obtained, we make the subjoined record.'
Loamy soil underlaid by yellow gravel, o feet to 15 feet. )• Recent.
to 45 feet.
sand at 140 to 160 feet.
Dark clay, 173 " "180
Alternations of sands, clayey sands, and sandy clays all brownish in shade and varying from fine to medium in quality. No micro-organisms, .180 " "310
Decidedly sandy clay at 280 to
Loose rock described as boulders, at . . 570
Water bearing sands decidedly coarse at the bottom, 640 " "715
Clay beneath, 715 " j
The upper or the great diatom bed of the Atlantic coastal plain Miocene deposits is 260 feet thick in this well, and occupies the interval between the depths of 310 and 570 feet. In this connection we may state that well-borings at Wildwood,*
* Annual Report Geol. Survey, N. J., 1894, foot of page 164, Diatom bed No. 4, at Wildwood.
N. J., and at Lewes,* Del., have revealed at those places a lower diatom bed within the Miocene and about 200 feet below the base of this bed. This second or lower bed probably exists beneath this locality and also Atlantic City, but at a still lower depth than the horizons (the 700 and the 800-foot Atlantic City horizons) that are utilized for water-supply, and for the same reason has therefore not been reached by the numerous borings along the coast from Brigantine to Avalon, these having been made only to the depths of these two (700 and 800-foot) water-horizons.
It was, however, probably penetrated by two extra deep borings at Atlantic City that were at first unsuccessfully made, so far as obtaining water was concerned, to the depths of about 1,100 and 1,400 feet in the early efforts to obtain water there, as stated in the Annual Reports for 1887, page 26; 1888, pages 72 to 75, and 1889, pages 89 to 99, the latter with an illustrated vertical section.f The existence, however, of this second or lower diatom bed was not then learned, probably for the reason that specimens of the borings covering this interval were not preserved.
ARTESIAN WELLS AT ATLANTIC CITY, N. J.
At The Traymore Depth, 830 feet
At The Waldorf-Astoria, . . Depth, 837 feet.
Deep wells have been put down at Atlantic City during the past year at The Traymore, at The Waldorf-Astoria and at the Gas Works.
* AnnuaI Report Geol. Survey, N. J., page 89, Marine Fossil Diatoms at Lewes, at the depths of 1,000 to 1,020 feet.
f Noted also with illustrated vertical section in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1890, pages 132 to 147, Geology of Artesian Wells at Atlantic City, by Lewis Woolman.
Both of these wells afterward obtained water, one of them, on the meadows, by parting the casing and opening the 800-loot water-horizon, and the other, at the gas works, by withdrawing the casing a short distance and opening a water-horizon still deeper, but one the exact depth of which has not been certainly learned. In the Annual Report for 1889, its depth was stated to be at 1,121 feet, and in the Annual Report for 189-, this depth was revised and stated to be probably at about 925 feet. A deep well at Young's ocean pier, in process of boring as this goes to print and which has reached a depth of about 1,500 feet, shows, however, that probably neither of these statements is correct It is hoped this well, when finished, will reveal its true depth. This boring also shows that the records furnished the survey of the first two deep wells is more or less incorrect. An entire revision of the vertical section beneath the depth of 850 feet is needed, but must be left for the future, however.