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so that forty heads were left to him, and that he banished them from the territory." The round tower of Feartagh, in the barony of Galmoy, marks the site of this triumph of native prowess. From the Danish occupation of this territory would appear to be derived the name of the present barony. The word Galmoy is a compound of "Gall," a foreigner, and " Magh" (pronounced Moy), a plain; hence Galmoy implies the plain of the foreigners; and the old church of Glashare, situated in this plain, is locally denominated "Tenipul-naGall," i.e., the church of the foreigners. In the year 862 Cearbhall makes a raid through Leinster, which was retaliated by the Leinstermen on the Osraigh within the next fortnight. The same year he plundered Munster till he reached Fermoy; he then proceeded further south, and harassed the country of Ui Aenghusa, i.e., the descendants of Aenghus Mac Nadhfrach, who expelled the Ossorians out of Feimhin in the fifth century.
In the year 860, on Tuesday, the 13th November, Maelseachlan, or Malachy, died after he had been sixteen years in the sovereignty of Ireland; he was succeeded by Aedh Finnliath (which A.D. would be translated Hugh Fennelly), son to Niall Caille, who had been drowned in the Callan river in the year 844. 860. The new monarch appears to have early engaged the services of Cearbhall Mac Dunghal. In the year 868 they are introduced to our notice, acting together in a plundering expedition through Leinster. The following is the account of this event from the " Annals of the Four Masters," A.D. 868 :—"The plundering of Leinster by Aedh Finnliath from Ath-uliath to Gabhran. Cearbhall, son of Dunghal, plundered it on the other side as far as Dunbolg. The Leinstermen attacked [Dun-Cearbhaill] the fort of Cearbhall, and the son of Gaithin, and many men were slain by them. When the people of [Longphort] the fort had perceived this, they fought bravely against them, so that they compelled them, with their chief, Brann, son of Muireaclhach, to return back, after numbers of their people had been slain." The construction of this passage is somewhat complicated and the sense obscure. The context will read thus :—Hugh Finnliath, King of Ireland, laid waste the territory of Leinster from Gabhran (Gowran), the King of Osraigh's territory, to Ath-Cliath (Dublin), the then stronghold of the Norsemen. Whilst simultaneously Cearbhall, King of Osraigh, made a raid "on the other side ;" that is, as I understand it, on the east side of Mount Leinster, when he plundered up the valley of the Slaney as far as the place then called Dunbolg, near Dunlavin, in the county of Wicklow. The Leinstermen, provoked by this encroachment of Cearbhall, organised a force, and meditated a raid into his kingdom under the leadership of Brann, son to the then King of Leinster, and availing themselves of the facility for their project, afforded by the absence of Cearbhall, set out on an excureion into Osraigh. On their way they "spoiled" the mansion place of Mac Gaithin, who was then Lord of Laeighis or Leix, in the now Queen's County; thence proceeding further south they attacked Dim-Cearbhaill, and slew some of the garrison in the surprise of the attack ; but the "people of Longphort 'n having "perceived" the assault on the king's mansion, hastened to the assistance of the failing garrison, bravely defended the citadel, slew a great number of the assailants, and forced the remainder to retreat back with their chief, Brann, Into Leinster. This is the only reference in the "Annals of the Four Masters" to the castellum or mansion-place of Cearbhal Mac Dunghal; and if that fortress occupied the site of the present castle of Kilkenny, which had been the residence of the kings of Ossory down to the Anglo-Norman invasion, it does not appear to have retained that chieftain's name after the date of his decease.
Having thus concluded our discussion, we resume our memoir of Cearbhall Mac Dunghal.
In the year 868, we read of Cearbhall, at the head of the Osraigh, invading the territory of Deisi, when Corcran and Gorman, two petty dynasts of that territory, were slain by them. In the A.D. year 869, Cearbhall and his clansmen plundered Connaught, thence he made a raid through Munster, which he spoiled 868. and harassed from the mountains of Sliebh-Luachra westwards to the sea. It was whilst he was thus engaged, and " during the snow of Bridgetmas this year," that the lords of the foreigners were plundering and slaying "the men of the three plains." These three plains, according to the opinion of Dr. O'Donovan, were "Magh Airbh," "Magh Sedna," and "Magh Tuath;" the latter was situated in Upper Osraigh. It appears to me much more probable that the three plains referred to were Magh Roighna, Magh Airged-Ros, and Magh Tuath. These three territories extend the entire length of Osraigh, from the base of the Slieve Bloom mountains in the north, to the Walsh mountains in the south, through the pass in which the foreigners usually entered Osraigh from their fleet in the bay of Port Largie (i.e., Waterford Harbour). In the year 872, Cearbhall again ravaged the country of Deisi as far as "fiealach-Eochaille," i.e., as far as the ballagh or pass of Youghal. In the year 876, "A defeat was given to the Leinstermen at Uachtar-dara, when Bolgodhar, son of Maelcier, was killed." In this name, Bolgodhar, the dh would be aspirated, leaving the pronunciation, Bolgohar, apparently the Celtic form of the family name Bolger.2 The word Uachtardara would be pronounced Uachtar - arra, and, according to the opinion of O'Donovan and the Inquisition, quoted above, refers to the locality now called Outrath. This victory is immediately followed, and in the same year, by another thus recorded :—" A slaughter was made of the people of Laighin deas Gabhair, at Fulachta, by the Osraighi, wherein Donag, son of Anmchadch,
1 The word "Longphort," in O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary, is translated "A palnee, a royal seat, a fort, a garrison, a tent." No other reference is found to such a locality in Owory.
2 Bolger was a common name about Kilkenny down to a late period, and it was most, prob .bly the name of the ehleftain of Outrath.
and Dubhthoirtrigh, son of Maelduin, were slain, together with two
hundred men, who were cut oft' by slaying and drowning." The district at the time of this event called Laighin deas Gabhair, was identical with that marked Magh Mail on the map which accompanied the last section of this essay, and may be here described as the country lying between the present parish of Gowran and the River Barrow. The battle here recorded must have taken place on the banks of the River Nore, for the "drowning" could not be performed unless at that or the Barrow river: it is not probable that the people of Osraigh would pass out of their own country and attack the Laighin deas Gabhair on the River Barrow, it is much more probable that this action was the result of another raid made by the Lagenians of that district into Osraigh, and that in crossing the Nore they were interrupted by the tribesmen of Cearbhall Mac Dunghal. It appears to me highly probable that the word Fulachta is preserved in the name of a very obscure but very primitive locality near Bennettsbridge, where the ancient road from Kohernathoundish forded the River Nore at Bally reddin Mill. This place is called, amongst the natives of the locality, Poulathney, or Powlatna, as near as I can take down the sound. This may be a corruption, or modification of Fulachta: its proximity to the river and to the locality of the ancient pass from Gowran would incline me to believe that it was the site of the battle where the "two hundred men were cut off by slaying and drowning." This same year another victory was gained by Cearbhall and the people of Deisi, which is thus entered :—" A.D., 876, A victory was gained by Cearbhall and by the Deisi over the men of Munster, at Inneoin, where fell Flannabhra, Lord of Gabhra, and many others along with him." Inneoin is now called Mullinahone, about four miles south-west of Callan.
We are now hastening to the close of this remarkable man's career. It is forty years since he inaugurated his public mission in a grand feat of arms at Cam-Brammit, where 1200 of the invaders were slain in his rage. Since then the impetuous ardour of youth had sobered down to the determined valour of manhood, but now the matured prowess of his dauntless spirit subsides into activity before the gradual but steady vdvances of old age: seven years elapse and his name is not recorded in the "Annals." The foreigners lay waste the fair plains of his kingdom, and Cearbhall does not appear to confront them; Cuilan, his son and intended successor, assumes the chieftain's mantle, and stands at the head of his faithful clansmen, but this, the only record of his name, is also his funeral panegyric, for we read, "Cuilan, son of Cearbhall, and Maelfebhail, son of Muircheartach, were slain by the Norsemen, of whom [i.e., of Cullen] were said," say the Annalists—
"May Cuilan be under the protection of God from tlie pains of hell of ill flavour.
"We did not think that Cuilen would [thus] have perished; we thought he would be king."
Whether this event preyed on the declining years of the venerable old chieftain we are not informed, but in the following year, namely, 8&5, he shares the common lot of humanity, and his life of heroism and daring is closed by this simple record : "Oearbhall, son of Dunghal, Lord of Osraighe, died."
Were we in possession of the historical statistics of Cearbhall Mac Dunghall's reign, we might be able to prove that what the Annalists call a "plundering" expedition, according to the language of the time, was but a laudable intervention between some powerful feudatory and his helpless and unprotected subordinate, or a raid into a neighbouring territory to chastise the native treason of its Toparch for conniving at or assisting the invasion of the foreigners. In the absence of those details, we can form our estimate of his public reputation from the position of eminence to which he was raised by the bishops of Ireland at the great convention of the nobles and kings of the nation in Westmeath, when the Comharbs of Patrick and Finnian invested him above all others with the honourable privilege of announcing to the assembled potentates thatMalachy, King of Ireland, possessed the sympathy and co-operation of the Church in his efforts to effect harmony aud reconciliation in the kingdom; and this estimate is further sustained by the more frequent and distinguished references to him in the Irish Annals, than to any other king of his age. In those meagre entries of our concise records, we have the outlines of a great character. . Had they been filled in by a biographer, or shaded into relief by the artistic hand of a panegyrist, we should have O'Carroll standing out in isolated prominence among the leaders of his time as the father of his people, as an uncompromising patriot, and as an heroic and gallant chieftain ; and if we require further proof of this, we have it in the grand testimonial erected to his memory by his descendants—namely, the identification with his name of the seat of his royalty, the fairest plain of the ancient Osraigh, which they dignified with the title of "Cluain Ui Cearbhall," i.e., the lawn or plain of O'Carroll, and thus perpetuated to future generations the name and the memory of Osraigh's greatest king; and hence the encomiums, like flowers strewn along a hero's path, with which O'Heerin decorates his memory, and which seem at first sight as poetic hyperboles, but in reality are extracts from the compilations of some contemporary bard who, in the exuberance of his attachment, thus commemorates the virtues of his chief. "O'Cearbhall, for whom the trees are ruddy," implying the general jubilation of even the inhabitants of the vegetable kingdom on his approach, and under whose rule the barbarians dare not devastate the fair plains of Osraigh, and for whom, in consequence, the fields are green and the trees are ruddy; and again "O'Cearbhall for whom the sea is smooth," by which we are not to understand, as O'Donovan facetiously but inconsiderately insinuates, that the Irish kings, as well as the Irish saints, were invested with supreme command over the elements; our poetic author here, by a species of bardic licence, conveys his ideas of the welcome with which the waves and the sea greet the presence of him who subdued the hoards of seafaring barbarians who then inundated every other part of Ireland, but were kept at bay by the indomitable energy and superior prowess of the vigilant commander of Osraigh. And then referring to the territory subject to his righteous rule, we are told that—
"From Cill Cainnigh, of the limestones,
We have already identified this verdant land of O'Carroll as being co-extensive with the present barony of Shillelogher, the liberties of the city of Kilkenny, and those parts of the barony of Gowran lying along the base of the "Johns well Mountains" called Claragh, with its south-eastern continuation through Dunbell and Tullahern.
DIAEMAID AND CEALLACH.
Diarmaid Mac Cearbhall succeeded to the government of Osraighe on the death of his father in A.D. 885. From some cause
not fully explained in the Irish Annals, this chieftain apjy pears to have incurred the public odium of his time, for, at
the year 900, we read in the "Four Masters" :—" Diarmaid, 885. gon of Cearbhall, was driven from the kingdom of Osraighe,
and Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, was made king in his place." This deposition and banishment of Diarmaid, notwithstanding the concise obscurity in which it is recorded, on further inquiry assumes the aspect of a political manoeuvre of the Court of Cashel, which, at this period, aimed at the supreme jurisdiction of Ireland. Diarmaid appears to have actively resisted the ambitious designs of Munster, whilst Keallach, his brother, most probably as a matter of policy, appears to have sympathised with their schemes. Whether Diarmaid or Keallach was the legitimate successor of their father Cearbhall Mac Dunghal, is not recorded; but that Diarmaid did succeed to the government of Ossory, and whilst in that position did openly and even offensively resist the encroachments of Cashel on the territory of Osraigh is placed beyond doubt by the records of the period.
AD. 891. "A slaughter was made of the Eoghanachta at Grian Airbh by the Osraigh, i.e., by (Diarmaid) the son of Cearbhall and
the Leinstermen." The Eoghanacht were the inhabitants A.D. °f *ne district surrounding the city of Cashel and the special
favourites of the King of Munster. Grian Airbh was the 891. ancient name of the open country extending from Kilcooly
through Woodsgift, in the north-west of the county of Kilkenny. The chapel of Grean (or Grian) still standing there preserves the olden title of the locality. The son of Cearbhall who now