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founded by J. C. Woodcock, now president of the stock company, which was formed in 1899. They manufacture the celebrated Boss Feed Grinders, which have an extensive market. A. Dump, since 1889, has been engaged in the manufacture of carriages, buggies and bicycles. A. Kramer & Sons, for nearly thirty years have been doing an extensive business in the nianufzicture of cigars. George J. Herrnstein, after devoting the most of his life to the lumber business, has in recent years had much success in the manufacture of brooms at Chillieothe, for the wholesale trade. .

The Valley Manufacturing company, making spokes, rims and handles, has been in operation since 1886, and produces nearly two

I million handles annually. The Chillieothe Lumber company, on

Park street, manufacture and deal in rough and dressed lumber, and have a high standing among the concerns of that character in the State. Since November, 1901, Harry S. Adams has been the pro prietor. The Chillieothe Bottling works, established in 1866, and now owned by George L. E-mmel, is one of the best equipped in the State. A manufactory of builders’ mill work, sash, doors and blinds, was founded in 1894 by Edward Reed, and is now conducted by the firm of Reed & Marshall. On the site of the old lumber yard of W. H. Reed on east Water street, is the Sterling planing mill and lumber company, which began business in July, 1901. August Schneider, manufacturer of fine carriages, has been in that business at Chillieothe since 1867.

According to the United States census figures of 1900, ROSS county has 207 manufacturing establishments, with a total capital of $1,385,064. This capital is, land, $195,535; buildings, $279,055; machinery, etc, $391,011; cash and sundries, $519,463. The average number of wage earners employed is 1,400, to Whom $522,073 in wages is paid. The total cost of materials is $1,473,368, and the total value of the product of manufacturing establishments in the county is put at $2,517,771.

In these figures the industries of Chillieothe, of course, form 8. very large part. The same data for Chillieothe separately are 85 follows: Establishments, 115; capital, $914,447 ; wage earners, 1,223; wages, $454,644; cost of materials, $914,665; value of products, $1,7 09,895. Chillieothe ranks fifty-third among the manufacturing cities of the State, and in population its rank is twentysecond.

The freight wagons that were driven over the pikes of early days, and to a considerable extent, the canal boats that gave the county transportation facilities to Lake Erie and the East and the Ohio river and_ the South, have become obsolete, their places being taken by ill? 1a1l1'0B-d8- Of these, the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern 1185

39 males of main track and 36 miles of sidetrack in the county; the Clllclnnatl, Hamilton & Dayton system 39 miles of main and 6 miles sidetrack; the Norfolk & Western system 24 miles of main and 6 miles sidetraok, and the Ohio Southern 29 miles of main and 5 miles of side track. The total for the county is 130 miles of main track and 54 of sidings. IThese roads pay over $20,000 taxes annually upon their property in the county.

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CHAPTER X.

EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

scription or by assessment upon the patrons according to

HE first schools in Ross county were all supported by subthe number of children they sent to school. There was no

law requiring the establishment of public schools, after.

the modern fashion, until 1825, and it was a good while after that before anything closely resembling the common school system of today had been evolved. It should not be hastily concluded from this that education was neglected. Parents who could afford it gave their children the advantage of good schools, as good as could be maintained, and among those who were very poor there was much self-sacrifice that the children might be educated and prepared for better success than their fathers and mothers in the struggle of life. Some very poor boys in Ohio, in that period when there were no common schools, supplemented the little schooling they could obtain by firelight reading, and so beginning, became in later years the great men of the State, and a few of them the greatest men of the nation. The difference, comparing the present with the early part of the nineteenth century in Ross county, is that now the schoolfl are open without cost to boys and girls, without regard to their fam‘ ily importance or family wealth, and it is no disgrace to attend a free school. Then it was, and free schools were sometimes called “pauper” schools. So, it may be observed, we are more truly democratic today than the fathers who considered themselves the special champions of human equality.

The first schoolhouse in Chillicothe, says Williams’ history, was a. Small log cabin, built some time before 1800, on the northeast corner of _Fourth and Paint streets, on the spot afterward occupied by t-l1B residence of Joseph Sill. There was no such building there in 1810, and the location given may be wrong. But at whatever spot the school was kept» 15 appears that the first, or one of the first, to teach, W8! Nathaniel Johnston, of Irish extraction, and uncle of Mrs. J amen

McI.andburgh. After teaching many years in Chillicothe, he made his home upon a farm in Springfield township, where he died in 1837. Says the Centennial Gazette: “The first school house in this place [Chillicothe] was made of logs and stood near the old gravevard which used to be on the bank of the river immediately west of the present Bridge street bridge. It was built by private subscription about 1799, and was used as a school until February, 1802, when it was sold by trustee Thomas Dick.” On April 1, 1802, John Hutt, a brother of the first supervisor at Chillicothe, opened a girl’s school to take the place of the one that had been kept in a log house near the upper end of what is now Bridge street, on Water.

As settlements were made in other parts of the county, schools were established in a similar manner, often being held in such log cabins as happened to be empty. In Green township a log schoolhouse wa_s built near the home of Taylor Moore, as early as 1810, another near the old Mt. Pleasant church about 1815. Long schoolhouse, of hewed logs, was built with Harmon DeHaven as the architect, about 1812, and others followed as the needs of the people increased. Among the early teachers were Jonathan Griffith, Jacob Evans, Hugh Sherry, Moses Bro\vn, Henry Halverstot, Henry Emstow, Alexander Gordon.

In Colerain James S. Webster taught the first school at Adelphi, using a loghouse which also served as church. The first schoolhouse proper was built between the two little streams east of Hallsville, on the south side of the pike in 1827. In 1844 or 1845 the township boasted a brick schoolhouse, of one room, in which Thomas Armstrong was the first teacher, and in 1870 a handsome and expensive house, of two rooms, was built at Adelphi.

Union township had a schoolhouse at South Union about the year 1800, of puneheon floor, roof of clapboards, greased paper windows, and seats of split slabs supported by wooden pins, after the fashion of all the early schoolhouscs.

In Harrison township the first schoolhouse was in the valley of the Little \Valnut, where Samuel Yaple, father of Judge Alfred Yaple, was one of the earlv teachers.

In Liberty township schools were taught in the early part of the last century by William Slaughter and John A. Dalley, in section Fifteen. In Huntington the first school was taught by Thomas Gilfillen, not far from R-alston’s run, and other early teachers were Benning \Vent\vorth, Zebulon Dow, and Theophilus VVood. Concord township had among its pioneer teachers John McNally, Massie Mickie, \Vall, Sperry, Ashton, Langdon and Charles Foster. In 1847 a building was erected at Frankfort for an academy, in which the township at a later day established a graded school, with several teachers, that has done good work for the cause of education.

The excellent graded school at Bainbridge and district schools of

Paxton township had their predecessors, in the days of settlement, '

in log cabin schools taught by teachers of whom a few names remain, such as James Grey, Cowley, French and King.

Among the early teachers in Buckskin township were Benjamin McClure, Hugh McKenzie, John Organ and Aaron Cox, and Samuel Buck, the latter teachingabout 1808 near Waugh’s chapel. James Caldwell, who came to the county in 1805 from near Cha1nbersburg, Pa., and taught on Buckskin creek, continued in his profession during t-lie most of his life, and during the war of 1812 showed his patriotism by serving as first sergeant of Captain Kilgore’s company.

James Finley, an old soldier of the Revolution, is remembered as the first teacher in Springfield township, in a house on the farm of George Haynes.

Further information regarding these beginnings of public education is given in the township chapters. ,

The Chillicothc academy, one of the famous schools of its rank in Ohio, was founded early in the nineteenth century, and the building was erected, in the center of a block on South Paint street, in 1809. It was an imposing edifice for that day and compared favorably with any public building in Ohio—two stories in height, about seventy-five feet long by forty-five broad, and surmounted by a cupola, in which the bell was hung. For some years, however, the building remained unfinished. An Irish teacher, named Dunn, carried on a school for the teaching of English in the front lower room of the building, and a “Lancast.rian” school was established in the largest second story room by Daniel W. Hearn. In 1816, after several years of rather irregular management, Rev. John McFarland, pastor of the Presbyterian Reformed church, was put at the head of the institution, which was reorganized. Mr. McFarland took charge of the classical department, and Mr. Hearn for many years was the instructor of the intermediate or English room. Hearn, and the books he taught-, such as \Vebster’s spelling book, M0rse’s geography, Pike’s arithmetic, and Murray’s grammar, are probably remembered better than anything else about the old academy. This worthy teacher of the old time always kept 8. good supply of rods on his desk and found frequent use for them. The noon hour he spent in writing copies in the penmanship books of the pupils, and in manufacturing pens for their use from goose quills, and the rest of the time, from eight in the morning till six in the evening, he was busily engaged in the instruction of boys and girls of various ages and acquirements. The task of such educational

pioneers was far in excess of that encountered by any of the teachers Of t°da.Y- After McFarland’s time the classical teachers were Rev.

Robert G. Wilson, Rev. Joseph Claybaugh, Mr. Kellogg and Rev

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