besmear the wire by which the lamp was suspended over the Sepulchre with resinous oil and set it on fire from the roof."

Among the many things to be seen there, a few will be mentioned: A stone said to have come from the center of the earth and now to mark the center of the world. Beneath it is said to be the place of torment.

An opening in the wall where there is a cleft in the rock said to have been made at the time of the earthquake when Christ was crucified. As Christ was crucified just above this rock and Adam was buried just beneath it the rock cleft in such a.way that the blood of Christ flowed down upon the skull of Adam and he was cleansed from his sins.

A silver plate to mark the place where it is said that the cross of Christ stood. Hundreds of people bow down here and kiss this plate. Several did this as we were passing.

What awful delusion! What impostors to make the ignorant people believe such things. May the Lord speed the day when conviction will come to the hearts of these malicious perpetrators and when the light of the Gospel will dawn upon these benighted souls so that they can no longer be imposed upon in such a godless manner, but will find their salvation in Him who said, "I am the light of the world."

CHAPTER X

JERUSALEM AND ENVIRONS (Continued)

Trie Jews' wailing place—The Pool of Bethesda—The Convent of St. James—Jewish quarters and synagogues—The Christian quarters The Via Dolorosa—A ride around the city wall—Valley of Hinnom—Zion farmed—"The field of blood"—Job's well—Pool of Siloam—Fountain of the Virgin—Mount of Offences—Moslem and Jewish cemeteries—Three noted tombs—Church of the Tomb of the Virgin—Services at the American Free Church—Garden of Gethsemane—Mount of Olives—A view from the tower—The Syrian Orphanage— The Tombs of the Judges and of the Kings

The scene at the Jew's Wailing Place is very touching. It is situated near the Temple site, in fact almost under the shadow of that place. The stone wall bearing that name is one hundred fifty feet long and nearly sixty feet high. Nine courses of stone at the bottom are made of very large blocks and the remaining fifteen courses are made of much smaller ones. The general shape of these hewn stone show that they were not designed by the same builder but that the lower courses were the work of a much earlier period, in all probability of Solomon's time. Here the Jews meet every Friday afternoon to engage in lamentation. About four o'clock in the afternoon as many as two hundred gather here to weep and pray. This beautiful prayer is sung, or rather wailed:

(Leader) "For' the palace that lies desolate,
(Audience) We sit in solitude and mourn.
(L) For the palace that is destroyed,

(A) We sit in solitude and mourn.

(L) For the walls that are overthrown,

(A) We sit in solitude and mourn.

(L) For our majesty that is departed,

(A) We sit in solitude and mourn.

(L) For our great men that lie dead,

(A) We sit in solitude and mourn.

(L) For the precious stones that are burned,

(A) We sit in solitude and mourn.

[graphic]

Jews' Wailing Place

(L) For the priests who have stumbled,
(A) We sit in solitude and mourn.
(L) For the kings who have despised Him,
(A) We sit in solitude and mourn."

Another one equally touching and showing the Jew's idea of the return of their nation, not only to Jerusalem, but to power as well, is also given:

(L) "We pray Thee have mercy on Zion.

(A) Gather the children to Jerusalem.

(L) Haste, haste, Redeemer of Zion.

(A) Speak to the heart of Jerusalem.

(L) May beauty and majesty surround Zion.

(A) Ah, turn Thyself mercifully to Jerusalem.

(L) May the kingdom soon return to Zion.

(A) Comfort those that mourn over Jerusalem.

(L) May peace and joy abide with Zion.

(A) And the Branch spring up in Jerusalem."

Coming there at the time when these exercises are going on one can not help but feel that their sorrow is real and their prayers earnest because of the tear-stained faces; but earlier in the afternoon there may be seen a few people, especially women, in prayer and people coming here at such a time are apt to doubt the sincerity of these people. Several years, ago a party came here and heard several women wailing and as they were heavily veiled, one of the number said, "I do not believe that they are crying. I am going to inspect." He stepped up to one old lady and lifted her veil. Coming back to his friends he said, "I am sorry I did that. There were great tear drops running down over her cheeks." Are the hardening of the sinners' hearts and the disposition of professed Christians to do and live only that part of the Gospel that is popular, an indication that the time is near at hand when "the fullness of the Gentiles be come in?"

The Pool of Bethesda, the place where the many "impotent" people were "waiting for the moving of the water," has long since been supposed to be the one near St. Stephen's Gate, and the many thousand pilgrims that visit the place annually believe with a certainty that this is the place; and so it may be, but there is no certainty about it. It is about three hundred twenty feet long and one hundred twenty feet wide. There would be ample room for the five porches referred to in the Scriptures. As one enters, he is at once attracted by the many tablets on the wall on which the story of the healing of the helpless man as found in John 5 :l-9 is written or printed in sixty different languages, for the benefit of the many pilgrims who visit the place so that all who can may read. A few years ago there were only about half as many languages represented. Others are added each year.

There are a great many monasteries in and around Jerusalem (not less than thirty-five), some of which are built so as to accommodate several hundred pilgrims at once. They are usually built and supported by foreign capital. Some tourists get accomodations here instead of at hotels, as the rates are cheaper. Many are built because of some event that is supposed to have occurred there. The St. James (Convent) was built on the spot where James, the greater, was beheaded, as they believe. In this one there are three sacred (?) stones. The lower one is said to have come from Sinai, the middle one is claimed to be one of the twelve stones spoken of in Joshua 4:3, and the top one from the place where Christ was transfigured. These are placed inside of a screen with a hole in the screen at each stone. The people have kissed these stones so often that they are all colored and worn. We passed without kissing them. Other monasteries have things just as inconsistent which are shown to the poor ignorant pilgrim and he believes that certain virtue comes to him by kissing or in some other way showing his appreciation.

There are very few things of interest in the Jewish quarter of the city and there seems to be no effort made to improve along any line. The filth is simply amazing. The great wonder is that the people are not all carried away with plague and epidemics. The people seem to be very sincere and are coming back from various quarters with a_ hope that the time is not far distant when they shall again be a people having their own government and the Messiah will come and be their King; but they, as well as their part of the city, will need a thorough cleaning, literally if not spiritually, before they are ready for such an event. Even their synagogues are not kept respectably clean. We were in the largest one in the city on a Saturday, their Sabbath. There were groups gathered in different parts of the room and one in each group assumed the place of a teacher. He discussed parts of

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