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round to be a mistake, and the idea as then entertained has not been revived. During the civil war there was a class of small steamers known as guu-boats that were very useful. The name "90 day gun-boat" was given to a number of these vessels, as it only required that length of time to build them. In the new navy the Yorktown and class of 1700 tons wen: originally known as guu-boats. The Petrel of 870 tons, and two vessels of 1000 tons, under construction, are classed as gun-boats : the former carries four 6-inch rifles and seven rapid-fire and machine guns, and the latter eight 4-inch rifles and seven rapid-fire and machine guns. This shows a considerable change from the idea earlier in the century, when one or two guns formed the entire battery. See Dynamite Cruiser.
GUN-CABRIAGE is a very important element in the equipment of each piece of ordnance. It requires to be of great strength, and at the same time of considerable weight, in order that the whole apparatus—gun and carriage together—may not be driven backward by the recoil in firing. Field-gun carriages have, besides, to bear an enormous strain in passing at a rapid pace over broken, uneven, or rocky ground. To provide for this severe wear and tear, every part is fitted with the utmost precision, made of well-seasoned material, and on strict mechanical principles. A large department, fitted with splendid machinery, in the royal arsenal at Woolwich, called the royal carria<re department, is charged with this branch of manufacture for the British service. Carriages are of various kinds, according to the service for which they may be required. When a tield-gun is to be moved, the trail-plate is hooked to the limber (q.v.), which converts the gun-carriage and limber into a 4-wheeled vehicle, capable of conveying the gun, its tools and ammunition, and several of its gunners. Information relative to certain species of gun-carriages will likewise be found under Traversing PlatForm. Among modern inventions of war is the Moncrieff or elevating gun-carriage, in which the gun is poised at the end of a lever pivoted on the carriage, and balanced by a heavy counter weight. Before firing, the gun is raised by mechanism; when fired, its own recoil drives it down upon the carriage. This arrangement enables gun and pinners to lie concealed behind a parapet until the moment of discharge. See illus. on Cannon, vol. III.
GUN-COTTON. The explosive of this name was discovered in 1838 by Braconnot, who dissolved paper and starch in concentrated nitric acid and recovered a powdery white substance, which burned with a flash when brought in contact with flame. Pelouze, about the same time, observed that starch so treated gained in weight. He .also noticed that by dipping cellulose matter in nitric acid of 1.5 sp. gr. it became very inflammable. In 1846 Schonbein announced the discovery of a new explosive, having four times the power of gunpowder, and as being eminently suited to take its place as a propeller of projectiles and in explosive work generally. Almost simultaneously, Bottger succeeded in producing what he called explosive cotton. He combined with Schonbein to practically utilize their joint discovery. Otto succeeded in producing gun-cotton independently of Schonbein and Bottger, working up from Pelouze's published experiments. Otto's product was weaker than Scbonbein's, as he only used nitric acid in its preparation, and not mixed nitric and sulphuric acid, which the latter used. The publishing of Otto's experiments, and their results, led many expert and amateur chemists to investigate in this field. Knox, Heeren, and Karmarsch discovered that the best gun-cotton was produced by dipping cellulose in the mixed acids, nitric and sulphuric, a fact which was the secret of Schonbein and Bottger.
Efforts were made in France, Russia, and England to introduce gun-cotton and substitute it for gunpowder. But the process of manufacture and the impurity of the raw materials used were such that the results were unsatisfactory. Fatal explosions occurred in France and England in 1848. An Austrian officer, Captain Von Lenk, by study and investigation, succeeded in producing gun-cotton which excelled all its predecessors in the regularity of it3 effect and in its keeping properties. Experiments with it from 1849 to 1853 tended to justify faith in its future, and the Austrian government bought the Schonbein-Bottger patents. In 1853 the first gun-cotton factory established and worked upon a rational plan was erected at Hirtenberg, near Vienna, under Von Lenk's superintendence. His method of manufacture was kept secret until 1862, when he gave it to the French and English, and patented in the United States in 1864. In 1865 the Austrian government abolished the use of gun-cotton in its service because of two 'fearful explosions of magazines filled with it. In this year Abel made the discovery which took gun-cotton out of the realm of possibly useful explosives, and placed it in tlut of the safe, practicable, effective, and useful ones. This consisted in pulping it, to admit of its proper purification, and in compressing it to increase its explosive effect. I'pon the Von Lenk-Abel method all gun-cotton is now produced. Essentially this method is to dip good and thoroughly cleansed cop or weavers' waste in pure and strong mixed nitric and sulphuric acid—one part by weight of the former and three parts by weight of the latter; to wash, boil, pulp, and liberate the resulting gun-cotton all free of acid; then to mold and compress it into the desired shapes and sizes for use.
For the manufacture of gun-cotton in the factory established at the naval torpedo sUtion in 1883 the cotton used is cop or weavers' waste, which is received in bales of about 500 pounds each. The bales are opened, and the cotton is picked over and placed
in cotton boiling tubs, about 200 pounds in each tub, to •which is added about 250 gallons of water and 35 pounds of caustic soda. The cotton is boiled in this solution for eight hours, then drained overnight; it is then boiled for eight hours in clear water, again drained, and then thoroughly washed in a centrifugal wringer or extractor. It is thus freed from oil and other impurities. It is then spread on the wire netting shelves of a suitably arranged dry room, through which hot air, at about 180° F., is circulated, and is sufficiently dried to be picked. The cotton as received in the bales is full of knots and rolls, and the boiling adds to them. To prepare it for conversion into gun-cotton it is necessary to take them out, that the acid may penetrate easily and quickly through all parts of it. To accomplish this result, the cotton is passed through a picker, a machine common, to all cotton factories. Having been opened out by the picker, it is dried as thoroughly as possible. This is done by placing it in the wire-netting-bottomed drawers of a specially constructed drier, that is closed when filled, through which and its contents air at 225° F. is driven by a blower, which draws its air through a steam heater. In this drier it is left for eight hours, at the end of which time it is estimated that not more than J to I of one per cent, of moisture remains. Water is liberated by the action of nitric acid upon cotton, and to avoid weakening the former any more than is absolutely necessary, and to prevent dangerous increase of temperature, the latter must be as dry as possible. When dry the cotton is stowed away in powder tanks, so that it may be conveniently handled, and also kept dry. It is now ready for the conversion process. This is carried on in the dipping room, which is fitted with cast-iron dipping troughs, located in a tank of running water, proper cooling troughs and acid reservoirs. The acid used is received already mixed, contained in iron drums of about 1200 pounds' capacity. The mixture is, as nearly as possible, one part by weight of pure nitric acid of 1.5 sp. gr. to three parts by weight of pure sulphuric acid of 1.85 sp. gr. As in the converting and the two succeeding steps of the purification process a great deal of acid fume is liberated, the dipping and two following pieces of apparatus are connected with a fan to take it up and drive it out. The prepared cotton is brought to the dipping room on the railway running through the factory. The dipper fills the troughs with acid and arranges his tools for use. The helper weighs out a pound of dry cotton, with which he approaches the dipper, and pitching about a third of it into the acid, the latter submerges it with a steel fork, and so on until the first trough is charged with the pound of cotton. The other three troughs are similarly charged. When about ten minutes have elapsed the dipper returns to the first trough, and with the fork gathers the gun-cotton out of the , acid, puts it on a grating at its farther end and squeezes the surplus acid out. It is then placed in a stone jar, covered over and set in a cooling trough. After being in the cooling troughs overnight the gun-cotton is placed in a centrifugal wringer in which the acid is extracted and caught in a drum. It next goes to the immersing tub. in which washing out the free acid is begun. This operation requires to be carefully and intelligently looked after, as too great heat is apt to be developed, when fire and damage are sure to follow. From the immersing tub it goes through another washing in <» centrifugal wringer, and is then placed in a boiling tub, where it is boiled in a mixture of water and carbonate of soda for eight hours. It is then drained and thoroughly washed in a centrifugal wringer, boiled again for eight hours, this time in fresh water, drained and washed as before. The pulping machine next receives it and it is pulped between knives until about the fineness of corn meal. From here it goes to the poacher, which is a large oval tub provided with a paddle-wheel which revolves and causes the pulp and water that is let in to circulate and the latter to wash the former. After an hour's washing the paddle is stopped and the gun-cotton settles to the bottom. The soiled water is drawn off, fresh water is added, and the process is continued until the washing water ceases to become soiled, when the cotton is supposed to be clean and without free acid. It is then tested to determine what percentage of soluble gun-cotton it contains, which must be less than ten per cent. The lower orders of gun-cotton are soluble in a solution of one part alcohol and two parts ether, and by means of this solution the test is made. It is then submitted to the heat test to determine whether any free acid remains. To make this test small quantities of the sample, thoroughly driedL are placed in test tubes which are fitted in a hot water bath, carrying a suitable thermometer. The mouths of these test tubes are closed with corks, under which are suspended pieces of iodide starch paper. The bath is heated to 150° F., and the gun-cotton must stand this temperature for not less than fifteen minutes without turning the test paper brown. Having passed the tests the next step is to prepare it for service use. To every poacher full of it there is added three pounds precipitated chalk, three pounds caustic soda, and three hundred gallons of lime water. So fortified with alkali, it is pumped into what is called the stuff chest, a round tank with a vertical shaft, carrying feathers to keep the pulp agitated and mixed with water. Abel, by discovering the pulping process, enabled the gun-cotton to be thoroughly purified of free acid, as by pulping the filaments are broken up and the water is able to wash it out. Again, by fortifying the purified pulp with alkali the nitrous exhalations are neutralized, and by compressing this purified product he presented to the world the ideal explosive for itjs purposes. The compressing is accomplished by means of an hydraulic press arranged for the purpose. The standard gun-cotton block is 2.9 inches square and 2 inches thick;
u.e molding is done at a pressure of 100 pounds to the square inch. From the moldbg press the blocks go under an hydraulic rani where a pressure of three tons to the inch is exerted, and the blocks leave this press with from 12 to 16 per cent, of moisture, which is increased to about 35 per cent, before issue to the service. It is packed in the standard tin exercise torpedoes and tinned sheet-iron service torpedoes, which are cat»able of being made water and air tight, and have the necessary titments for tilling and fusing. It is extensively manufactured in England by government as well as byprivate individuals. In Germany, Italy, Austria, and other countries it is manufactured by private parties. It is used by the military services of tbe wrhole world, and is constantly growing in favor. The Chinese and Japanese are taking steps to establish thefo own factories and thus free themselves from the European manufacturers. Wet compressed gun-cotton is the safest high explosive yet produced. It can be readily a« safely transported by any conveyance whatever. It is eminently convenient and safe to handle, store, and work with. It can be sawed, cut and bored easily and with perfect safety ; and the turnings, cuttings, and borings may be worked over, as may old, distorted, or obsolete shapes. It can be compressed in any shapes or sizes. Dry, compressed gun-cotton is safer in every way than gunpowder, and a very small percentage of the whole weight of any charge for explosive work need be dry. (See Its History. Manufacture, and Use, by Lieut. K. Kohrer, U. S. Navy.) The advantages of gun-cotton are:
For Purposes of Artillery.—The same initial velocity of the projectile can be obtained by a charge of gun-cotton one-fourth of the weight of gunpowder. It is comparatively smokeless, does not foul the gun, does not heat the gun to the injurious effect of gunpowder, less recoil with same velocity to projectile given by gunpowder, shorter barrel required, breaks a shell into a larger number of fragments, and when used in a projectile i quantity of gun-cotton equal in weight to one-third the amount of gunpowder produces double the explosive force of the latter.
For Civil Engineering and Mining.—In driving a tunnel through hard rock a charge of gun-cotton of given size exerts double the explosive force of gunpowder, so a smaller number of holes is necessary ; it breaks the rock into smaller pieces, if required, produces no smoke and so facilitates working; in blasting under water, the wider range and greater force of a given charge is a great element in cheapening the cost of submarine work; its peculiar local action enables an engineer to destroy and remove submarine stones and rocks without the preliminary delay and expense of boring chambers for the charge.
General Advantages.—Time, damp, and exposure do not alter its qualities when carefully prepared. Being made in the form of compressed disks, accidents cannot arise from spilling, as in gunpowder. As it can be exploded in a wet condition, provided a small quantity next to the detonator be dry, gun-cotton can be stored wet and the risks of accidents can in this way be in a great measure avoided. (See Explosives and Smokeless Powder.)
GUKDAMUK', a village of Afghanistan, claims notice merely in connection with the fatal retreat from Cabul in 1842. It was here that the last remnant of the British force, when within 28 m. of the shelter of Jellalabad, was massacred, to the number of 100 soldiers and 300 camp-followers, only one man effecting his escape.
GUHDTJXP, perhaps "a reformer before the reformation," in the 11th c. gathered disciples around him in the n. of France, particularly in Arras and Liege. He may have been an artisan who had settled in that region because of the flourishing condition of manufactures there, and among his fellow-workmen found or made disciples to his religious views. His greatest success was prior to 1025, in which year a company of his followers were arrested by Gerhard, bishop of Cambrai and Arras, and brought to trial for spreading heretical doctrines. According to the rules which they avowed they were persons who had forsaken the world, were striving to keep the flesh in subjection, to support themselves by their industry, to be honest in their dealings and to love all who were willing to join them. In their assemblies they were accustomed to pray and to wash one another's feet. But Gerhard, affirming that he had obtained from some of their proselytes a knowledge of their faith and practice, charged them with rejecting the Roman Catholic church, the pope's supremacy, the hierarchical system and even ail clergy whatever; and with saying that "dogmatic, liturgic, and constitutive traditions are worthless; all the sacraments of the Roman Catholic church are to be rejected; the consecrated elements of the Lord's supper are nothing more than what they appear to our senses; at the last supper Christ did not really give his disciples his body for food and his blood for drink; marriage is to be avoided; church buildings are not holy, hence worship does not derive any special virtue from being offered therein; the altar is only aheap of stones; fumigations, and the ringing of bells are useless ceremonies; crosses, crucifixes, images tend to idolatry." But although Gerhard charged the followers of Gundulf with believing these doctrines, they would not avow them. They defended only their opinions concerning baptism, to show the inefficacy of which, as an outward rite", they pointed to the immoral lives of the clergy who administered, and of the people who received it, as well as to the fact that in the children baptized, not one of the condi(inn Factories. Gunnery,
Hons was to be found on whJch all efficacy must depend—no consciousness, no will, no faith, no confession. But at length, under the combined influence of the bishop's arguments and of torture, they agreed to recant their errors. Then Gerhard and other members of the synod pronounced a condemnation of the heresy, excommunicated the authors of it, if they did not repent, and compelled the prisoners to sign a statement of the true Roman Catholic doctrine before they were released. A copy of the proceedings was sent also to the bishop of Liege. The acts of the synod are the only source from which knowledge of this sect can be obtained; and after the trial neither Gundulf nor his followers can be traced. If they continued to hold their opinions they did so in secret. Similar sects existed at all times in the Roman Catholic church and, so far as the facts concerning them can be discovered, they seem generally to have been seekers after truth and godliness, in an age whose corruptions had dishonored the Christian name.
GUN FACTORIES, Royal, are government establishments at Woolwich for the construction of great guns for the use of the British army and navy. For a very long period there had been at Woolwich a small factory for the manufacture of brass cannon, but guns of cast-iron were obtained from private foundries by contiact. At last it was determined that government should become in part its own gun-founder, and extensive work-shops were erected in 1855—6. The adoption of the Armstrong wrought-iron gun into general use in the service, in 1859, arrested the further making of cast-iron guns, and occasioned again a great expenditure in the erection of shops and costly machinery, which have since been adapted to the other systems of wrought-iron ordnance adopted into the service under the name of "Woolwich." The factories may now fairly be regarded as among the most remarkable sights in the kingdom. In each department, whatever the process, it is repeated over and over again, till long parallel lines of similar mills are seen, each busily fashioning a separate gun. Iron at red-heat is first wound round a solid core (representing the bore of the future gun), as tape might be round a pencil; and then by the action of successive blows from a steam-hammer (there is one of 100 tons), the strips are welded into acompact cylinderof wrought-iron of extreme density. This cylinder, after undergoing several heatings and poundings with the steam-hammer, is encompassed with wrought-iron rings of immense strength, which are shrunk on, and then transmitted to the boring-mill. Here the proper caliber is imparted to it; in another department, the bore is rifled; in another, the outside of the gun is carefully turned; and in yet another, the whole is polished and browned.
GTfNDTJK', a river of India, joins the Ganges from the left or n. side, opposite to Patna, after a s.e. course of about 400 miles. It is supposed to rise beyond the Himalayas, in lat. 29° 40' n., and long. 83° 14' e., while its remotest source within that range is said to be at the foot of Dhwalagiri. Near this point the river touches the British territory, dividing it for 15 m. from Nepaul. Only a small portion of its course is navigable; but rafts of timber are floated down from NepauL
GUNDULITSCH, Iwan, the most celebrated Serbian poet of earlier times, was the son of Francis Gundulitsch the historian, and was born Aug. 8, 1588, in the town of Ragusa. After he had completed his primary education and philosophic studies under the Jesuits, he betook himself, at the age of 21, to the science of jurisprudence, in which he made such rapid advances that in spite of his youth he was intrusted with the first offices of the RagUBan republic. He died in 1638. On Dec. 20, 1838, the bicentenary anniversary of his death, a grand requiem was sung in memory of the poet, in the Academic church of Agram. —Gundulitsch's poetical works, lyrical, dramatic, and epical, are a faithful mirror of the stirring time in which they were composed. He was the earliest dramatic writer of the Slavic race, and the theater of Ragusa, in which his pieces were performed, was the first Slavic theater. His greatest and most celebrated work is an epic, The Osmanli, in 20 cantos, in which he sings the deeds of Osman II., and the fame of the Poles and their king, Wladislaw IV., in the campaign of 1621. This work was first published at Ragusa in 1626; the latest edition is that of Gaj (Agram, 1844). Of his dramas, may be mentioned Ariadne, The Rape of Proserpina, Galatea, Diana, Armida, The Sacrifice of Love, Ceres, Cleopatra, Adonis, and The Coral; of his other poems, Hymn on the Greatness of Ood and The Tears of the Afflicted Son. Gundulitsch also made several translations from the Italian poets.
GUNGL, J08EP, composer of dance music, born at Zsambek in Hungary in 1810, was for some time a teacher, then entered a military band as oboist, and was its conductor for eight years. In 1848-48 he gave concerts in Berlin, and there in 1849, after a visit to America, he was appointed musical director to the king. From 1858 to 1864 he was bandmaster of an Austrian regiment; but most of his remaining years were employed in concert tours. He died in 1889. Of his 400 compositions, for the most part waltzes, many were very popular.
GUNJAH. See Hemp.
GUNHAXING, GUN-TBADE. Although the terms gunnery and gun relate chiefly to great guns or cannon, the word gunmaking is always applied to the manufacture of small-arms, comprising muskets, rifles, pistols, and carbines. In England the great seat of this trade was formerly London, whose workmen stood unrivaled throughout Europe for the excellence of their production; but of late years the gunmakers of Birmingham have succeeded, from local advantages, in turning out barrels of provet.
power, at such a price as to defy competition. Since then the London makers have confined themselves to "finishing," or putting together, an art requiring the utmost nicetyj and even in this, the skilled labor of Dublin and Edinburgh lias now nearly equaled them. There are, therefore, several centers now in the United Kingdom whence firstrate arms are to be obtained. America and the leading continental nations are great manufacturers also, and each has its particular excellences. The chief continental gunfactories ore at St. Etienne, Liege, Vienna, and Suhl.
Machinery has been comparatively slow in being applied to the manufacture of smallarms, but during the last few years it has made giant strides; and now the government manufactory at Enfield, in which numerous ingenious machines have been introduced from the Lnited States, is fitted with every mechanical appliance, and can turn out many thousand arms per annum, each of which so exactly corresponds to pattern, that all the constituent pieces are interchangeable. Barrels, instead of being forged by the hand-hammer, are rolled at once with a uniform pressure, and then welded at one heat. In the United States, barrels are at present made of cast-steel, first formed in the solid, and then bored by a succession of borers of increasing diameter. These cast-steel barrels are rapidly superseding all others—at least for sporting purposes—in Great Britain, France, and America. Another favorite modern material for barrels is " laminated •teel." See Barrel. Barrels well constructed with laminated steel resist a bursting pressure of 82,000 lbs. on the square inch, one-eighth of an inch thick, whereas common "twist" barrels will only withstand about 34,000 lbs.
When the barrel is finished, however made, it is proved, under very heavy charges of powder. All non-government barrels made in England must be proved at the proofing houses of London or Birmingham; government arms are tested at Enfield.
In fitting and finishing, London is generally admitted to stand unequaled; Paris, however, making a good and near second. For barrels, Birmingham, St. Etienne, and Liege have the most repute. In all respects, Toledo, once famed for its blades, holds a high character in regard to its guns, both for sporting and military purposes. In the United States, Springfield and Hartford are the leading manufactories, with Watervliet for government arms.
QUWWEL, gvnnelhis, or muramoides, a genus of fishes of the blenny (q.v.) family, of more elongated form than the true blennies. The species are pretty numerous, but only one is British, the Common or Spotted Gunnel or Butterfish (67. vulgaris), often to be found in tide-pools on the sea-shore; seldom more than 6 or Tin. long, of a deep olive color, with a row of dark spots on the back, remarkable for the quantity and thickness of the mucous secretion with which it is covered. It is seldom used in Britain except for bait.
GtTNKEB, in the U. S. navy a warrant officer who has charge of the battery, small arms, and magazines, subject to the ordnance officers. He is required also to assist in training the men in the handling of the guns. To be eligible he must be between 21 and 30 years of age, intelligent, a thorough seaman, and trustworthy in all respects. In the U. o. army there is no grade of G., though the term "gunner" is applied in the artillery to whichever of the gun squad is chosen to point the gun, at which nearly all take turns.
GuTTNEBY. Ignorance of the laws of gravity and of other physical circumstances affecting the flight of projectiles, prevented any correct theory of gunnery being arrived at in the earliest stages of artillery. The first author professedly treating on the flight of cannon-shot was Nicholas Tartaglia, a distinguished Italian mathematician, who, in 1537, published his work, La Jfuova Scientia. He had no practical acquaintance with his subject, but his guesses were shrewd and often marvelously near the truth. Among other things he ascertained that no portion of the track described by a ball is a right line, and as a practical aid to artillerists, he devised the gunner's quadrant (q.v.). After Tartaglia, many philosophers, especially of Italy, theorized on the question, and various tables of ranges, elevations, charges, etc., had been published, all more or less fallacious, when a nearer approach to accuracy appeared in Galileo's Dialogues on Motion, printed in 1638. The officers who had charge of artillery in actual use were too little gifted with scientific education to deduce theory from practice; and up to the time of Bobins, who wrote in 1742, but four working-gunners—Collado, Browne, Eldred, and Aklerson, of whom the last three were Englishmen—have left treatises of any value on the use of their weapons.
Galileo, in his contributions to physics, had shown that cannon-shot, or any other projectiles, being affected by the downward force of gravity, would travel in the curve of a parabola, unless affected by the resistance of the air. The philosopher pointed out modes by which the disturbances caused by this resisting medium might be ascertained; but subsequent writers, with the exception of Newton and Bernouilli, till the time of Robins, chose to assume that the atmospherical resistance was but nominal, and boldly asserted that all shot described parabolas in their course. In 1742 Mr. Benjamin Robins, who must be considered the real founder of the science, published his New Principles of Gunnery, a work the result of long and almost exhaustive experiments. He treated of the atmospheric resistance, of the force of gunpowder, of the effects of varying length and weight in guns, and of almost everything which in any way related to the motion of