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^aered by David, but they afterwards recovered their independence.

MOERIS (-idis), a king of Egypt, who is said to have dug the great lake known by his name; but it is really natural, and not an artificial lake. It is on the W. side of the Nile, in Middle Egyptj and used for the reception and subsequent distribution of apart of the overflow of the Nile.

MOESIA (-ae), a country of Europe, was bounded on the S. by Thrace and Macedonia, on the W.by lllyricum and Pannonia, on the N. by the Danube, and on the E. by the Poutus Enxinus, thus corresponding to the present Servia and Bulgaria. ThiB country was Bubdued in the reign of Augustus, and was made a Roman province at the commencement of the reign of Tiberius. It was afterwards formed into 2 provinces, called Moe&ia Superior and Moesia Inferior, the former being the western, and the latter the eastern half of the country. When Anrelian surrendered Dacia to the barbarians, and removed the inhabitants of that province to the S. of the Danube, the middle part of Moesia was called Dada Aureliani.

MOGONTlXCUM, MOGUNTiACUM, or MAGONTIACUM (-i: Mainz or Mayence), a town on the left bunk of the Rhine, opposite the mouth of the river Moenus (Main).

MOIRAE, called PARCAE (-arum) by the Romans, the Fates, were 3 in number, viz., Cumio, or the spinning fate; Laciiesis, or the one who assigns to man his fate; and Atrgpos, or the fate that can not be avoided. Sometimes they appear as divinities of fate in the strict sense of the term, and sometimes only as allegorical divinities of the duration of human life. In the former character they take care that the fate assigned to every being by eternal laws may take its course without obstruction; and both gods and men must enbmit to them. These grave and mighty goddesses were represented by the earliest artists with staffs or sceptres, the symbol of dominion. The Moirae, as the divinities of the duration of human life, which is determined by the two points of birth and death, are conceived either as goddesses of birth or as goddesses of death. The distribution of the functions among the 3 was not strictly observed, for we sometimes find nil 3 described as spinning the thread of life, although this was properly the function of Clotho alone. Hence Clolho, and sometimes the other fates, are represented with a spindle; and they are said to break or cut oft* the thread when life is to end. The poets sometimes describe them as aged and hideous women, and even as lame, to indicate the slow march of fate; but in works of art they are represented as grave maidens, with different attributes, viz., Clotho with a spindle or a roll (the book of fate); Lachesis pointing with a staff to the globe; and Atropos with a pair of scales, or a sun-dial, or a cutting instrument.

MOLlONE. [molionks.]

MOLIONES (-urn) or MSLlONlDAE (-arum), that is, Eurytus and CteatUB, so

called after their mother, Molione. They are also called Act/>r\dae or Actdrlone ('AKTopiwve), after their reputed father Actor, the husband of Molione. They are mentioned as conquerors of Nestor in the chariot race, and as having taken part in the Calydonian hunt Having come to the assistance of Augeas against Hercules, they were slain by the latter, MOLOSSI (-orum), a people in Epirus, inhabiting a narrow slip of country, called after them MoLORsiA or Moi.ossis, which extended} along the W. bank of the Arachthus as far aa the Ambracian gulf. They were the most powerful people in Epirus, and their kings gradually extended their dominion over the whole of the country. The first of their kings, who took the title of king of Epirus, was Alexander, who perished in Italy B.c. 326. [Emitus.] Their capital was Ambkaoia. The Molossian hounds were celebrated in antiquity.

MOLTCRTUM (-i), a town in the S. of Aetolia, at the entrance of the Corinthian gulf.

MOMUS (-i), the god of mockery and censure, called by Hesiod the son of Night. Thus he is said to have censured in the man formed by Hephaestus (Vulcan) that a little door had not been left in his breast, so as to enable one to look into his secret thoughts.

MONA (-ae: Anglesey), an island off the coast of the Ordovices Iu Britain, one of the chief seats of the Druids. Caesar erroneously describes this island as half way between Britannia and Hibernia. Hence it has been supposed by some critics that the Mona of Caesar is the Isle of Man; but it is more probable, on account of the celebrity of Mona in connection with the Druids, that he had heard of Anglesey, and that he received a false report respecting its real position.

MONAESES (-is), a Parthian general mentioned by Horace, probably the same as Surenas, the general of Orodes, who defeated Crassus.

MONETA (-ae), a surname of Juno among the Romans as the protectress of money. Under this name she had a temple on the Capitoline, which was at the same time the public mint.

MONOECIPORTUS, also HERCUXIS MONOECI PORTUS (Monaco), a port-town on the coast of Liguria, founded by the Massilians, was situated on a promontory (hence the arx Monoeci of Virgil), and possessed a temple of Hercules Monoecus, from whom the place derived its name.

MOPSIA or MOPS0PIA, an ancient name of Attica, whence 3fopedplu8 is frequently used by the poets as equivalent to Athenian,

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MOPSIUM (-i), a town of Thessaly in Pelasgiotis, situated on a hill of the same name between Tempe and Larissa.

MOPStTESTlA (-ae), an important city of Cilicia, on both banks of the river Pyraraus.

MOPSUS (-i). (1) Son of Ampyx and the nymph Chloris, the prophet and soothsayer of the Argonauts, died in Libya of the bite'of a snake.—(2) Son of Apollo and Man to, the daughter of Tiresias, and also a celebrated seer. He contended in prophecy with Calchas at Colophon, and showed himself superior to the latter in prophetic power. [calchas.] lie was believed to have founded Mallos in Cilicia, in conjunction with the seer Amphilochus. A dispute arose between the two seers respecting the possession of the town, and both fell in combat by each other's hand.

MORGANTIUM (-i), MORGANTINA, MURGANTlA, MORGENTiA (-ae), a towu in Sicily, S.E. of Agyrium, and near the Symaethus, founded by the MorgGtes, after they had been driven out of Italy by the Oeuotrians.

MORGKTES. [mobgantium.]

MORINI ( orum), the most N.-ly people in all Gaul, whence Virgil calls them extremi honiinum. They dwelt, on the coast, at the narrowest part of the channel between Gaul and Britain.

MORPHEUS (-50s, e"T or el), the son of Sleep and the god of dreams. The name signifies the fashioner or moulder, because he shaped or formed the dreams which appeared to the sleeper.

MORS (-tis), called THXNATOS by the Greeks, the god of death, is represented as a sou of Night and a brother of Sleep.

MOSA (-ae: Maas or Meuse), a river in Gallia Belgica, rising in Mount Vogesus, and falling into the Yahalis or W. branch of the Rhine.

MOSCHI (-orum), a people of Asia, dwelling in the S. Part of Colchis.

MOSCHUS (-i), of Syracuse, a bucolic poet, lived about n.o. 250. There are 4 of his idyls extant, usually printed with those

Of BlON.

MC-SELLA (-ae: Sfosel, Momllc\ n river in Gallia Belgica, rising in Mount Vogesus, and falling into the Rhine at Confluentes (Coblenz).

MOSTENI (-6rum), a city of Lydia, S.E. of Thyatira.

MOSYNOECI (-orum), a barbarous people on the N. coast of Asia Minor, in Pontus, so called from the conical wooden houses in which they dwelt

MOTtfCA (-ae), a town in the S. of Sicily, W. of the promontory Pachynus. The inhabitants were called Mutyceuses.

MOTTA (-ne), an ancient town in the N.W. of Sicily, situated on a small Island near the coast, with which it was connected by a mole. It was founded by the Phoenicians, and next

belonged to the Carthaginians, who translanted its inhabitants to the town of Lilyaeum, B.O. 397. MtTClUS SCAEVOLA. [soabvot.a.] MULCIBER (-bri), a surname of Vulcan, which Beems to have been given him as a euphemism, that he might not consume the habitations of men, but might kindly aid them in their pursuits.

MULtTCHA (-ae), a river in the N. of Africa, rising iu the Atlas, and forming the boundary between Mauretania and Numidia.

MUMMlUS (-i), L., consul B.o. 146, won for himself the surname of Achaicus by the conquest of Greece and the establishment of the Roman province of Achaia. After defeating the army of the Achaean League at the Isthmus of Corinth, he entered Corinth without opposition, and razed it to the ground. [corinTncs.] He was censor in 142 with Scipio Africanus the younger. MUNATIUS PLANCTJS. [plancus] MUNDA (-ae), a town iu Hispania Bae. tica, celebrated on account of the victory of Julius Caesar over the sons of Pompey, B.o. 45.

MtTNYCHlA (-ae), the smallest and the most E.-ly of the 3 harbors of Athens. The poets use Munychian in the sense of Athenian.

MURCIA, MURTEA, or MURTlA (-ae). a surname of Venus at Rome, where she had a chapel in the circus, with a statue. This surname, which is said to be the same as Myrtea (from myrttiB, a myrtle), was believed to indicate the fondness of the goddess for the myrtle-tree.

MTTRENA (-ae), which signifies a lamprey, was the name of a family in the Licinia gens, of whom the most important were: (1) L. Lioiniub Mcrena, who was left by Sulla as propraetor in Asia, B.c. 84, and was the cause of the 2d Mithridntic war.—(2) L. Lioiniub Murkna, son of the former, consul n.c. 63, was accused of bribery, and defended by Cicero in an extant oration.

MURG AN Tl A. [mobgantium.] MUS, DECIUS. [DKcirs.3 MUSA (-ae), ANTONlUS, a celebrated physician at Rome, was brother to Euphorbns, tho .physician to king Juba, and was himself the hysician to the emperor Augustus. He had een originally a slave. MfJSAE (-arum), the Muses, were, according to the earliest writers, the inspiring goddesses of song, and, according to later notions, divinities presiding over the different kinds of poetry, and over the arts and sciences. They are usually represented as the daughters of Zens (Jupiter) and MnemosynG, and born in Pieria, at the foot of Mount Olympus. Their original number appears to have been 3; but afterwards they are always spoken of as 9 in number. Their names and attribute* were:

1. CUo, the Muse of historv, represented In a sitting or standing attitude, with an open roll of paper or chest of books.

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The worship of the Muses was introduced from Thrace and Pieria into Boeotla; and their favorite hannt In Boeotia was Mount Helicon, where were the sacred fountains of Aganippe and Hippocrene. Mount Parnassus was likewise sacred to them, with the Castalian spring1. The sacrifices offered to the Muses consisted of libations of water or milk, and of honey. The Muses were invoked by the p^bets as the inspiring goddesses of song; and all who ventured to compete with them in song were severely punished by them. Thus the Sirens, who had done so, were deprived of the feathers of their wings, which the Muses put on their own persons as ornaments; and the 9 daughters of Pierus, who had likewise presumed to rival the Muses, were metamorphosed intio birds. Being goddesses of song, they were naturally connected with Apollo, the god of the lyre, who is even described as the leader of the choir of the Muses by the surname Muftdgetes.

MYCXLESSUS (-i), an ancient city in Boeotia, on the road from Aulis to Thebes. In ii.c. 413 it was sacked by some Thracian r:ercenaries in the pay of Athens.

MYCENAE (-arum), sometimes MYCKNE (-es), an aucient town in Argolis, about G miles N.E. of Argos, situated on a hill at the head of a narrow valley. Mycenae is said to have been founded by Perseus, and was subsequently the favorite residence of the Pelop* idae. During the reign of Agamemnon it was regarded as the first city in all Greece; but after the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians it ceased to be a place of importance. It continued an independent town till u.c. 4G8, when it was attacked by the Argives, and the inhabitants were compelled by famine to abandon it. Mycenae was now destroyed by the Argives; but there are still numerous remains of the ancient city, which, ou account of their antiquity and grandeur, are some of the most interesting in all Greece.

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MftSAEUS (-i), a semi-mythological personage, to be classed with Oleu and Orpheus, is represented as one of the earliest Grecian poets. The extant poem on the loves of Hero and Leander, bearing the name of Mnsaeus, is a late production.

MTTSAGETES. [mcsae.]

MtJTlNA (-ae: Modena), an important town in Gallia Cispadana, originally a town of the Boil, and afterwards a Roman colony. It is celebrated in the history of the civil war after Caesar's death. Decimus Brutus was besieged here by M. Antonius from December, 44, to April, 43; and under its walls the battles were fought in which the consuls Hirtius and Pansa perished.

MYCXLE (-es), a mountain in the S. of Ionia in Asia Minor, N. of the month of the Macander, and opposite the island of Samos. Here a great victory was gained by the Greeks over the Persian fleet on the same day as the battle of Plataea, n.o.479.

MYCERTNTJS (-i), son of Cheops, king of Egypt, succeeded his uncle Chephren on the throne, and reigned with justice. He began to build a pyramid, but died before it was finished.

MYC5NUS (-i), a small island in the Aegaean sea, one of the Cyclades, E. of Delos, is celebrated in mythology as one of the places where the giants were defeated by HerculeB.

MYGDON (-onis), son of Acmon,who fought against the Amazons, and from whom some of the Phrygians are said to have been called MygddriMes.

MYGDONIA (-ae). (1) A district in the E. of Macedonia, bordering on the Thermaic gulf and the Chalcidic peninsula.—(2) A district in the E. of Mysia and the W. ofBithynia, named after the Thracian people, Mygdones, who formed a settlement here, but were afterwards subdued by the BlthynL—(3) The N.E. district of Mesopotamia, between Mount Masius and the Chaboras, which divided it

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