'' ' » servile

163. Prefixed denotes the third person masc. future sing. and plur. of all verbs.

164. Prefixed, forms some appellative nouns, and many proper names, as taipS' a scrifi, from DpS to collect; pnir Isaac, from pnX to laugh; 3pjr Jacob, from 3pJ? to supplant.

165. Inserted, forms many nouns; and after the first radical, denotes the effect or consequence, from the particifile active of the verb; for instance, from nil air breathing or in motion, comes m odour or exhalation. Inserted after the second radical, denotes the effect or consequence, from the participle passive, as TXp harvest, from 1iXp cut down.

166. Inserted before the last radical, it denotes the Hiphil conjugation.

167. Postfixed, forms a national name, as n3y an Hebrew, 'JyM a Canaanite.

168. Postfixed, forms the ordinal numbers, KrW third, yy\ fourth, &c. And observe, that in these ordinal nouns of number,' is not only postfixed, but frequently, as here, inserted also before the last radical.

169. Postfixed, denotes the 2d person fem. future and imperative, as Hp3n thou (woman) shalt visit; 'lpfl visit thou (woman), and sometimes the second person fem. preter, as, TiDt? and Thy Ruth iii. 3; "mDS Jer. xiii. 21. Comp. Jer. xxii. 23. xxxi. 21, and Ezek. xvi. 19, VTO; ver. 20, ITOY; ver. 37, "TO:ip and 7VVij ver. 43, 'IYoT and Ti'Byj so ver. 47, 51.

170. Postfixed, is the sign of the masculine plural in regimine, as 'pNn 'zhD kings of the earth. Comp. rule 25.

171. Postfixed, is formative in some nouns, both substantive, as T1N Lord, n3/rwiV/ and adjective, as 'WBT1free, nTJDN violent, 'jy afflicted, poor.

172. Postfixed to a noun, denotes the pronominal suffix my, as n3n my word; to a verb, me, as 'np3 he visited me.

3 servile

173. Prefixed, is a particle of similitude, like, as, according to, when*

174. Postfixed to a noun, thy, as p31 thy word; to a Verb, thee, as 'ppD he visited thee.

* From ro thus.

*j servile is

175. Prefixed only, to, for, &c*


J3 servile

176. Prefixed, is a particle, from, &c.t or comparatively, than.

177. Prefixed denotes the participle of Hiphil and Huphal (and with n added, of Hiihfiael), whence

178. Prefixed, forms many nouns, signifying the instrument, or mean, or place of action, as from |J to protect, |JD a shield, an instrument of protection; from mr to sacrifice, n3iD an altar; so with n or n at the end of the word, many feminine nouns, as rfOTDB instrument or mean of ruling.

179. Postfixed to a noun, is a pronominal suffix, their, as D131 their word; to a verb, them, as D1pfl Ac visited them.

180. Postfixed with 1, forms the noun DV13 redemption, from m3 fo

181. Postfixed, forms some adverbs, as DDi; by day, from DV day; DJn gratis, from |T1 fo be kind, gracious; 0JDN fru/i/, from \OH truth; Dp'l vainly, from p'l vain.

J servile

182. Prefixed, forms the preter and participle of the conjugation


183. the first person plural future of all verbs.

184. some few appellative nouns, as nSDJ an ant, from

to crop; p1J a mutterer, whisperer, from p1 to whisper.

185. Postfixed, them and their, feminine.

186. forms many nouns, as |3lp an offering, from 31p to

approach; especially with 1 preceding" as |113! a memorial, from 13 fo remember; p13tsf drunkenness, from 131? fo inebriate.

U> servile

187. Prefixed only, denotes the relative wAo, which.\

188. the particle fAaf, because.

J-) servile

189. Prefixed, denotes a noun, as masc. TDSn a disciple or scholar, * From fo.

t From |D or from ruD fo distribute. i From 1t?N wAo.

from lDS to teach; masculine plural D'31n Terafihim, from n31 to venerate; feminine rtJTin a prayer, means of obtaining favour, from |n to be gracious: also a particle, as nnn under, from nnJ fo descend.

190. Prefixed denotes the second person future of both numbers and genders; and the third person future feminine sing. and plur.

191. Postfixed, denotes the second person preter sing. of all verbs.

192. in regimine for n fem. See rule 26.

193. —_ forms many nouns feminine, as mtsp incense, from 1Dp to fumigate.

The above table of the serviles should be carefully perused by the learner, and continually consulted by him, when in words he meets with letters for which he cannot account.

For finding the Root in Lexicons.

194. Reject all affixes, and letters acquired in forming; if three letters remain, that is the root. If only two, add ' or J in the beginning (and in the deflections of np1? to take, S),' or 1 in the middle, n or N at the end, or double the second radical letter—for instance, if the word 33D occurs, 3D is the root.

195. Observe ' is to be added at the beginning, 1 in the middle, or n at the end, much more frequently than J or N are to be supplied.

196. If, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, only one letter should remain, add ' or J to the beginning, and n at the end. Thus for |VJn see ru'; for ]N see n3J.


For finding the Root in Mr. Parkhurst's Lexicon.

197. Reject all affixes, and letters acquired in forming;* if three

* In doing this, verbs in Hithpael may give sometimes trouble to the learner. nn the characteristic is ordinarily to be cast off. When letters remain, that is generally the root: thus in the word rowo. Gen. i. 1, 3 is a particle or affix signifying in, rule 143, n" a termination of nouns, see rule 16, therefore i? iO is the root.

198. But ifr after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, the word hath 1 or ' inserted (unless before n), you must reject them also, and then you will tgenerally find it under the two remaining letters. (Comp. rule 98.) Thus in TNnS, Gen. i. 17,1? is a particle to or for, rule 175. n the sign of conjugation Hiph. rule 149. TN then remaining, you must also rejectand look for the root 1N. Observe that when 1 or ' is the middle, and n the final letter of the root, the 1 or ' is retained, as in no, rrn, nn. .

199. If, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, only two letters remain, that is frequently the root. Thus in D'DBn, Gen. i. 1, n is a particle emphatic, the, by rule 150, is the termination of a noun masculine plural, by rule 19. aW therefore remains for the root.

200. But if, in this case, you cannot find it as a two-lettered root, add ' or J to the beginning of the word, and to the deflections of Hp1? to take, S (comp. rules 89. 93, 94, 95) or n, and more rarely N to the end. (Comp. rules 102, 103, 104.) Thus in lynn, Gen. ii. 9, n is emphatic, the, rule 150, n is a feminine termination, rule 193; these then being rejected, jn remains; but not finding this in a two-lettered form, I add ' Yod to the beginning, and find it under root jrv. Again, in np'1 and he took, Gen. ii. 15,1 is a particle, and, rule 157; ' is the sign of the third person masculine future, rule 163; np then remaining, I add h to the beginning, and look for npS. In 'J3 Gen. i. 2,' is the sign of the N. masc. plur. in. regimine, rule 25; this therefore being rejected, and not finding the root |3 in a two-lettered form, I add n to the end, and look for ru3.

201. If, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, only one Tetter should remain, add ' or J to the beginning, and n to the end.

the first radical is 1, D, or n, the servile n is sometimes omitted. When D or ID is the first radical, the servile n is put after it. When the first radical is X the characteristic n is not only transposed, but sometimes changed into D.

* In some verbs, the 1 in the middle is radical and immutablez as in mX,

Thus Gen. xiv. 15, in 031,1 is a connexive particle, and, rule 157,
* the sign of the third person masculine future, rule 163, and D a suf-
fix, them, rule 179, 100; there remaining then only the letter 3, pre-
fix J to the beginning, and add n to the end, and look for the root
mi. Comp. rule 107.

202. Nouns or particles of two letters ending in ' must usually be
sought under roots with n for the final letter, as for '3 the mouth, see
n3; but for '3 that, see nn3; and sometimes such nouns belong to
roots with 1 for the middle letter, as '3 a burning to no.

203. Reduplicate words must be sought under their simple ones;
thus, for Ym and Ww, see hi, for 1333n, see i3n. Comp. R. 109, 110.

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