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who afterwards wrote the preface to his Psalntodia Sacra. In 1532 he returned to Lueneburg highly recommended by Luther, Melanchthon, and Bugenhagen, and for the last fifty years of his life he was teacher and conrector of the school at Lueneburg. One of the greatest liturgical and musical treasures of our Church is his Psatmodia Sacra (Nuernberg, 1553; 2d ed., Wittenberg, 1561; 3d ed., Wittenberg, 1579). This Cantua Sacra Veteris Ecclesicz Selecta contains the full musical material for all the liturgical services of the Church. The first and third editions are used by Schoeberlein. A. S.

Louis VI., of the Palatinate, son of the Elector Frederick III, and Maria of Ansbach, b. July 4, 1539, received his education at the court of the Margrave Philibert of Baden, under Luth. auspices. In 1560 he became governor of the Upper Palatinate, and in 1576 succeeded his father as Elector. Louis was an ardent friend of the Formula of Concord, and did his best to restore the Palatinate, which had been Calvinized by his father, to the Luth. faith. His reign, however, was too short to enable him to complete this work, which was undone by the regent who governed the country during the minority of his son Frederick IV. L. d. Oct. 12, 1583. G. F. S.

Louise Henrietta v. Brandenburg, b. 1627, at the Hague, d. 1667, in Berlin, as the wife of the Great Elector, Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg, a descendant of Admiral Coligny, the French Huguenot leader, and the ancestor of William, who was proclaimed German Emperor at Versailles (1871). Though herself of the Reformed faith she was a faithful friend of Paul Gerhardt. At her request the Berlin hymn-book of 1653 was prepared by Christoph Runge for the joint use of Lutherans and Reformed. Four hymns in this book are spoken of by the editor as " her own," among them "Ich will von meiner Missethat" (I will return unto the Lord), tr. by Miss Winkworth (1869), and "Jesus, meine Zuversicht," of which Julian mentions 15 different English translations, among them "Jesus Christ, my sure Defence," by Miss Winkworth, Church Book, and "Jesus, my Redeemer lives," also by Miss Winkworth, Lyra Germ. (1855), Ohio Hymnal (1880). It is, however, not absolutely certain that those hymns called by Runge " her own " were really written by her. In none of the earliest sources is her name attached to them, and not until 1769 did the theory of the anthorship of the Electress find acceptance. On the other side, there is no satisfactory evidence that any other whose name has sometimes been connected with them is in reality the author of those hymns, such as Otto von Schwerin, Caspar Ziegler, Hans von Assig. A. S.

Louisiana, Lutherans in. Of the 12 congregations and 2,952 communicants, reported in 1890, all but two congregations with less than 200 members were in New Orleans, and with the exception of a congregation of 500 communicants in that city belonging to the Joint Synod of Ohio, all belonged to the Synodical Conference.

Ludecus, Matthaeus, b. about 1540, in Mark

Brandenburg, bishop at Havelberg, d. there in 1606. He furnished most valuable material for the musical rendering of the Luth. service in his Missale (two parts), Vesperale, and Psatterium (1589). A. S.

Lufft, Hans, " Bible printer," b. 1495 ; began to flourish as a printer at Wittenberg about 1530; printed Luther's German Bible complete in 1534. To 1574 more than a hundred thousand copies of the Bible were printed in his office. He printed many of the works of Luther, Melanchthon, and other Reformers. Became an alderman of Wittenberg about 1550, and mayor in 1563. D. September 2, 1584. J. W. R.

Luger, Friedrich Paul, b. at Luebeck, 1813, author of many published sermons, which are characterized by a clear, deep, and fervent style. Some of his works are: Chris tus unser Leben (i855. 5 vols.) ; DerBrief Jacobus (1887) ; Ueber Zweck, Inhall, und Etgenthumlichkeil der Reden Siephanus (1838) ; and Pestalozzi (1845). In 1884 he was made emeritus as archdeacon. D. 1890. H. W. H.

Luthardt, Christopher Ernest, canon of the Collegiate Church, Meissen, senior of theological faculty of Leipzig, b. March 22, 1823, atMaroldsweisach, Lower Franconia, studied at Nuremberg and Erlangen; 1847, prof, of classical college at Munich; 1851, instructor at Erlangen Univ. ; 1854, extraordinary professor of theology at Marburg; 1856, professor at Leipzig; since 1865, counsellor of consistory, and 1887, ecclesiastical counsellor. Since 1868 L. has been editor of Allgemeine Lutherische Kirchenzeitung. He is at present only survivor of the great past generation of Luth. divines, member of mission board (Leipzig), executive member of Lutherische Conferenz, author of twelve sermon collections; Gospel of St. John; Doctrine of Last Things; Doctrine of Free Will; Compendium of Dogmatics; Apologetic Lectures; Luther's Ethics ; Ethics of Aristotle; History of Christian Ethics; Compendium of Ethics; Introduction into Academic Life and Studies; Commentaries to Gospel of St. John, Acts of Apostles, Epistle to Romans, Three Epistles of St. John ; Autobiography; Die Chrl. Glaubenslehre, etc. G. J. F.

Luther, Martin. Presupposing that every intelligent reader of this article has a biography of Luther, a simple summary for convenient reference is here attempted.


1483. Nov. 10. Birth at Eisleben.
1497. Enters school at Eisenach.
1501. Student at Erfurt.
1505. Master of Arts.

July 2. Overtaken by storm.
"17. Enters cloister.

1507. May 2. Ordained.

1508. November. Instructor at Wittenberg.

1509. March 9. Bachelor of Theology. Re

turns to Erfurt.

1511. October. Starts for Rome.

1512. May. Sub-prior of cloister at Wittenberg. Oct. 4. Licentiate.

"19. Doctor of Theology. 15I3- Spring. Lectures on the Psalms begun.

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1515. Vicar, in charge of eleven monasteries.

1516. Publishes The German Theology. Lec

tures on Romans and Galatians.

1517. April. Notes on Penitential Psalms. Sept. 4. XCVII. Theses against Scholastic Theology.

Oct. 31. The XCV. Theses.

1518. April 26. Heidelberg Conference. Oct. 12. Before Cajetan at Augsburg.

1519. January, first week. Conference with

Miltitz at Altenburg.
June 27. Leipzig Disputation begins.
July 4. Beginning of Luther's discussion

with Eck.

1520. June 23. To the German Nobility. Oct. 6. The Babylonian Captivity. Nov. 4. The Execrable Bull of Antichrist.

Dec. 16. Burning of the Bull.

1521. April 2. Starts for Worms.

"16. Enters Worms.

"17, 18. Before the Emperor.

"26. Departure from Worms. May 4. Taken to the Wartburg. Dec. 2. Secret journey to Wittenberg.

1522. March 6. Returns to Wittenberg.

1523. Sept. 21. Publication of German New


1524. August. Conflict with Carlstadt at Jena,

Kahlii, and Orlamiinde.

1525. April 16. In Thuringia, attempting to

check the Peasants' Insurrection. June 13. Marriage to Catherine von Bora.

1526. Beginning. The German Mass, and

Order of Service.

1527. January to March. That the Words:

This is my Body, stand firm. Ein feste Burg composed.

1528. March. Large Confession concerning the

Lord's Supper.
October. Visitation of churches.

1529. April. The two Catechisms.
Oct. 1-3. Marburg Colloquy.
April 16. Schwabach Conference.

1530. April 3. Starts on the way towards Augs


April 23. Reaches Coburg. June 5. Hears of his father's death. Oct. 13. Returns to Augsburg. 1531-4. Working steadily on translation of Old Testament.

1534. August. First edition of complete Ger

man Bible.

1535. Lectures on Genesis begun, which were

completed only shortly before his death. Nov. 6. Cardinal Vergerius at Wittenberg.

December. The English commissioners, Fox, Heath, and Barnes, reach Wittenberg.

1536. May 22-29. "The Wittenberg Concord"

with Bucer and Capito. December. Preparation of The Schmalkald Articles.

1537. Feb. 7-28. At Schmalkald. Leaves dan

gerously ill. J539- Of the Councils and the Church. 1539-41. Revision of translation of the Bible. 1542. Jan. 19. Consecrates Amsdorf as bishop

at Naumburg.

1542. Sept. 20. Death of his daughter, Magdalena.

1544. Sept. Short Confession concerning the

Lord's Supper.
The Hauspostille published.

1545. Oct. and Dec. 23. Two journeys to


1546. Jan. 23. Starts on last journey to Eisle


Feb. 14. Preaches his last sermon.
"17. Signs articles of agreement of
the Counts of Mansfeld.
Feb. 18. Dies.

"22. Buried at Wittenberg. Sermon
by Dr. John Bugenhagen ; address by
Philip Melanchthon.

His life divides into three periods: one of preparation, another of protest against current abuses, and a third of attempts to reform and reorganize the Church. Nothing was farther from his thoughts than any plan to gain for himself renown, or to accomplish far-reaching results. Springing from the Saxon peasantry, he had experienced the pressure of poverty, but came from a respectable family, that was not absolutely without property. His parents were God-fearing, industrious, and thrifty; but under the law themselves, sought to train their children by purely legal methods. His first teachers were stupid and brutal, and treated him with cruelty. Under the teaching of Trebonius, and the care of Ursula Cotta at Eisenach, he made rapid progress as a student, and on entering the University of Erfurt, was soon acknowledged one of its most brilliant scholars. Intended by his father for the legal profession, an illness, the sudden death of a friend, and a vow that he made during a frightful storm, led him into the monastery. There the thorough honesty of his character compelled him to seek, by the most scrupulous observance of every requirement, the attainment of that righteousness which was claimed for the monastic life. He would not be satisfied until he had fulfilled all that was included in his profession. Thus under the opinion that he was wrestling with God for the salvation of his soul, it was in truth the requirements, not of God, but of the Church, with which he was struggling. By the advice of an old monk, and of the Vicar-General, Staupitz, and by the reading of the Scriptures, particularly the Psalms and Epistles to the Romans and the Hebrews, he began to understand the way of life as declared in the gospel. This personal experience led him to see the defects of the scholastic theology, in which it was his duty to be versed. Called to Wittenberg, to lecture on the Dialer,tics and Physics of Aristotle, no task could have been more distasteful ; and he found opportunity to make innovations by comments on the Holy Scriptures. His visit to Rome opened his eyes to the weaknesses, worldliness, hypocrisy, and heartlessness prevalent in that religious centre. Returning to Wittenberg, he became a full professor of theology, devoting himself exclusively to the interpretation of the Scriptures, and taking as his masters, Augustine, with his profound doctrines concerning sin and grace,

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and John Tauler, with his sober mysticism. As vicar of the monasteries, he became the spiritual father and adviser of numerous monks, among whom there were some struggling just as he had done before them. The crisis came on gradually. Sincerely regarding himself a loyal son of the Church, he was ignorant how far the church of his time had drifted from Paul and Augustine. Thus idealizing the Church, the errors that grieved him he thought were exceptional, and would be suppressed if known by the Pope at Rome. Even before the publication of the Theses of October 31, 1517 (see Theses, The XCV.), he had candidly expressed himself concerning current abuses. It was with astonishment that he gradually found that, back of the abuses of John Tetzel, was the Archbishop of Mayence, and back of the archbishop was the Pope himself. From the subjects at first involved in the controversy, the discussion changed to that of the final authority in the Church, and he soon reached the clear expression of the principle, that above the Pope, above councils, above the Church, stands the unerring Word of God contained in Holy Scripture. But although the expression of the principle was only gradually attained, the principle itself had been unconsciously followed for years before. With it fell the entire fabric of the hierarchy. If the Holy Scriptures be the sole authority, there is no privileged class or order, whose prerogative it is to interpret Scripture. Every Christian is a priest, and all are inherently equal. Thus the pressing of the practical questions involved in the controversy concerning indulgences led to the formulation successively of the distinctive doctrines of Lutheranism. Every doctrine that Luther has restated was involved in some practical discussion, that could not be settled until the principles beneath it were recognized.

It was not enough, however, to state the doctrines only on the one side. They had to be guarded against misrepresentations and misapplications, both of enemies and of professed adherents. Luther was eminently conservative. Whenever practical necessities forced him to break with what had previously been held, he was careful to re-confess the truth beneath the error which he had to reject. There had thus to be an extensive reconstruction of the entire framework of the Church's doctrine. He constructed no new system. It arose as others put into order the materials which he furnished on particular articles.

This reformatory activity was not limited to a mere restatement of doctrines. It penetrated into every sphere of the Church's work. It necessitated the translation of the Scriptures into the language of the people, the elimination of doctrinal errors from the order of service and its translation, the composition of a catechism and of hymns and even of church music, the preparation of sermons as models to pastors and as devotional manuals for the people, the reorganization, in all its details, of the Church's government, and the reorganization of the schools. Step by step he was led into each of these undertakings.

As a scholar he was most profound in his

knowledge of the Scriptures. He began as a Reformer, with a very limited knowledge of Greek, and still less, if any whatever, of the Hebrew; but diligently worked until he was at home in his Greek New Testament, and availed himself of the aid of his colleagues in studying the Hebrew. His reading in the Fathers, particularly Cyprian and Augustine, was well remembered, and readily recalled. He knew well the Canonical Law, and some of the Scholastics. A recent writer has published a monograph on "Luther as a Church Historian," based upon quotations and allusions in his works. He was familiar also with many of the Latin classics, among whom Cicero was his favorite ; but had little acquaintance with the Greek classics. Aristotle he had studied in Latin translations. When we consider the limited time which he possessed after the Reformation began for independent investigation of particular topics and the collection of authorities, we must be astonished at the extent of his resources, as indicated by any index of allusions to ancient writers in his works.

As a teacher, he broke for himself a new path. He is entirely independentof all former methods. He makes it his business to lead his scholars into the very heart of the Scriptures. Making no effort to force them to commit approved definitions, he takes the text of Scripture itself, and follows the argument with running expositions. He aims at clearness, rather than exhaustiveness, and illustrates at every step from current events. In his lectures on Genesis, he is at his best, as he concentrates into them both the experience and the reading of his entire lifetime.

As an author, his style has all the freedom of extemporaneous speech. He is never scholastic, but always popular. Entirely inartificial, he often rises to the highest form of eloquence. He is often diffuse, and is carried away by the intensity of his feeling from his main subject into side remarks. Always full of force and fire, he occasionally, by his perfect frankness, lays himself open to the charge of a lack of dignity, and even coarseness. He rarely qualifies or modifies his statements, with reference to possible misinterpretations of his meaning. He lives intensely in the moment in which he writes, and thinks of no other adversaries but those at whom he is striking. Hence the frequent misrepresentations by those who do not study or quote passages from him in their historical setting.

As a translator, he aims constantly at reaching, by his own investigations and all the aid his associates can furnish, the precise meaning of the original ; and then expressing it in the most idiomatic, forcible, and timely way. He does not hesitate to adopt a paraphrase, where this presents the thought more vividly. His translation of the Bible fixed the form and standard of the modern German.

His hymns are largely paraphrases of Scripture in verse, composed while his mind was occupied with his translation of the Bible and his heart was aglow with the fire enkindled by his ever new discoveries of the riches of revelation. They have all the vigor, movement, and freedom of his speech.

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As a preacher, he is thoroughly at home in his text. It has entered his very life and become a part of his being. This he seeks to apply with all possible directness and plainness and force to his hearers. He adjusts his entire presentation to the most unlearned among them. We have few sermons that he wrote. Those we know were mostly taken down as he delivered them. A clearly fixed theme underlies them; and in general, divisions were determined evidently beforehand; but otherwise all was left to the suggestions of the moment. So free is he, that his style sometimes falls under the head of what would to-day be called sensationalism. But his theme is always Christ, and he never courts admiration or seeks to make a personal display. His favorite mode is the exposition of Scripture, either of the Lessons appointed by the Church, or of books of the Bible treated of consecutively. Peculiar emergencies, however, called forth sermons on free texts, or, as in the eight against the Zwickau prophets, without any text.

As an organizer, he made the suggestions and laid down the principles upon which Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, and others worked rather than, as a rule, looked himself to the details. In his Address to the German Nobility of 1520, and particularly in his treatise on the schools of 1524, he introduced radical reforms into the entire educational system, by the application of which, in great measure, Germany has attained its pre-eminence as the land of scholars. He was the earnest advocate of the most liberal culture, the champion of the study of the Greek and Latin Classics, and of the education of women. The free public libraries arise from his suggestions. In the government of the Church, he held tenaciously to all that was approved by the experience of ages, until he found it either contrary to the letter or spirit of the gospel, or ill adapted to the Church's chief work of reaching all men with God's Word. Even then, the break came only after all efforts of reform had been exhausted, and the change was indicated by circumstances beyond his control. In the public worship, all was retained that was not contrary to Scripture, the service was translated into the language of the worshippers, preaching was elevated to a position hitherto unoccupied^ and new methods (such as the hymnody) were freely used to bring the gospel directly to the intelligence and hearts of the people. External union was esteemed as of value only in so far as it was the expression and means of promoting unity in faith and doctrine. However unyielding when a stand was taken, due credit has not been given him for his moderation and conciliatory methods at times, nor have the peculiar nature of the circumstances where he seemed to be intolerant been fully appreciated. The cause which he represented he could not allow to suffer misinterpretation or reproach from confusion with some who wished to associate with him and whom he thought involved in serious error. Outward association was to him a matter of far less importance than the clearness of his testimony to what he believed to be the truth.

As a theologian, he is constantly restive un

der the restraints of the scholastic terminology in which some of the doctrines he confesses are stated. Plain German he prefers to scientific Greek terms, and to deal with questions in the concrete rather than the abstract. All theology he regards as beginning and ending with the doctrine of Christ. God is known only in and through Christ; and Christology, therefore, covers all theology. Speculations concerning God outside of Christ are not to be admitted. Predestination can be learned only after the entire plan of salvation in Christ has been surveyed. The organic union of all men in Adam, and the organic union of all sins in original sin, are taught. The entire corruption of human nature, and its absolute helplessness, without the grace of God, not only to return to God, but even to respond to His call, are predominant features. In his De Servo Arbitrto, he pushes the doctrine of the bondage of the will to an extreme that has often brought upon him the charge of fatalism. The incarnation presupposes man's sin. Christ's work is to make satisfaction for all sins, original and actual. The humiliation was of the human nature. Not only the sufferings, but the entire work of Christ was vicarious. Faith alone appropriates Christ's merits. This faith comes through the Holy Spirit working by means of Word and sacrament. Law and gospel are sharply distinguished and contrasted. It is alone the word of the gospel that brings faith. The sacraments are visible signs of grace assuring the individual using them that the gospel promise belongs to him. In the Lord's Supper, the sacramental pledge of the certainty of the word of grace is the presence of the true Body and Blood of Christ. The Christian Church is the sum total of all believers in Christ. The ministry is not an order, but an office, through which any congregation administers the means of grace, His Ethics is pervaded by the rejection of the theory of any inherent antagonism between the spiritual and material, the heavenly and the earthly, the eternal and the temporal. The separation caused by sin is removed by redemption and regeneration ; and the spiritual now pervades the material, the heavenly the earthly, the eternal the temporal. The Christian is not only a spiritual priest, but a spiritual king to whom all things belong. Nevertheless, while, by faith, he is lord over all, by love, he is servant of all. Faith is the spring and mother of all virtues. The Christian obeys the law, not by constraint, but by an inner necessity of his nature.

He had no ambition to be a social reformer. Politically he was the most conservative of conservatives. The old frame work of existing governments he most scrupulously upheld. But this did not deter him from speaking with the utmost frankness to and of rulers, not merely oppressors of the gospel, like Henry VIII. and Duke George, but even the Saxon Princes who were on his side. He discriminated between the man and the ruler. The man needed and had to submit to the preaching of God's Word. In accordance with his call, he felt it his duty, therefore, to visit rulers with his censures wherever the opportunity was offered

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and the circumstances justified it. But, at the same time, the subjects were urged to obedience. The revolts of both nobility and peasants met with his severest censures, at a time when every suggestion of self-interest seemed to demand that he should be their ally. Even serfdom or slavery was supported by his words disapproving of any plots to violently abolish them. For a long time he could not be persuaded that the evangelical princes would be justified in offering any but moral resistance to the arms of the emperor. The Christian, as a Christian, could use only the sword of the spirit, but, as a man, he was in duty bound to obey the emperor, and, when called upon, to go to war against the Turk. His patriotism did not blind him to the faults of his nation, or restrain his words of sharp reproof for sins and abuses.

His influence, without any effort on his part, has extended to all departments of human activity. The assertion of the right of private judgment burst the shackles by which all scientific inquiry had been fettered. Modern literature arose from his translation of the Bible and hymns and ceaseless activity as an author, awakening similar movements in other countries. Modern English literature is rooted in the English Bible, which was in the beginning as much of a translation from Luther's German, as from the sacred originals. The map of Europe showed great changes between the time that his Theses were nailed up and the half century that followed, that can be directly traced to the discussions that he evoked.

No intelligent admirer of Luther will claim that he was without faults. His manners were not courtly ; his language was not that of the drawing-room. He always bore the trace of his humble origin. He was, in many respects, a rough pioneer, whose work a less sturdy nature could not have performed. But if his language sometimes grates, before he is condemned the words of his cotemporaries, and particularly his opponents, should also be pondered. Under the weight of heavy responsibilities, amidst the pressure of incessant work, with a constitution that was undermined by the austerities of his youth, for years suffering from acute disease, it is not strange that, under the attacks of enemies and the misrepresentations of those about him, the nervous tension was excessive, and that his natural vehemence was at times uncontrolled. Let those who condemn him do one-hundredth of his work as well. His thorough sincerity, honesty, and unselfishness no one can question. In no hour of danger did he make a compromise. His greatest error, that of his temporary assent to tie marriage of the Landgrave of Hesse, did not spring from motives of political expediency, as a superficial view of the circumstances might suggest, but from a peculiar theory concerning marriage that he enunciates as early as 1520 in his book Concerning the Babylonian Captivity, and which we believe traceable to the fact that the monastic conception of the subject had not been entirely expelled.

Luther's works have been published in the following editions: 1. The Wittenberg, 1539-58,

12 vols. German and 8 Latin, folio. 2. The Jena, 1555-8, 8 vols. German and 4 Latin, with two supplementary volumes, Eisleben, 1564-5, folio. 3. The Altenburg, 1661-1702, 11 vols, folio, only in German. 4. The Leipzig, 23 vols, folio, 1729-40. The best folio edition. 5. The Halle, 24 vols. 4to, German, 1740-53. Edited with copious introductions, incorporation of illustrative documents, and translation of Latin works into German by J. G. Walch, and hence generally designated as the Walch edition. In 1880 the Luth. Ev. Synod of Missouri began to republish this edition after being thoroughly re-edited. Sixteen volumes had appeared when this article was written. 6. The Erlangen (and Frankfort ), 67 volumes i2mo, German, with exhaustive indexes, 1826-56 ; a second edition of earlier volumes has appeared. Latin works still in process of publication, about forty volumes having been published up to date. 7. The Weimar, large 4to, begun in 1883 under the patronage of the German Emperor, a critical edition, far surpassing all others, under editorship of Knaake, Kawerau, etc. (All these editions are in the Seminary Library at Mt. Airy.)

The best collection of his Letters was edited by De Wette (5 vols., Berlin, 1825-8), with asupplementary volume by Seidemann (1856). Another edition is by Strobel (1780-83). Separate editions of his Postils and of some of his other works are numerous. Particularly to be commended is the English translation of the XCV. Theses and his primary works (To the German Nobility; Concerning Christian Liberty; and The Babylonian Captivity of the Church) by Wace and Buchheim (First Principles of the Reformation, etc.), Philadelphia, 1885.

Contemporaries left biographies. Such are those of Melanchthon (1546), Cruciger (1553), Matthesius (1565), and his physician, Ratzenberger (1571). The three volumes of Jorgens (1846-7) contain only the history of his childhood and his preparation for his work. The best modern biographies are those of Kostlin (particularly the largest of his three works, 1st ed., 2 vols., 1885; 3d ed., 1883 ; the intermediate edition, German, 1882, has appeared in two English translations), Kolde (2 vols., 1884, 1893), Burk (1S83), Plitt (1883), Rade (3 vols., 1887), Lang (1870), and the still useful book of Moritz Meurer (1st ed., 1843-6; English translation, New York, 1848). The biography in Vol. XXIV. of the Halle edition of his works (Walch) is valuable. The English biographies of Beard (1889) and Bayne (1887), and the American of Sears (1850), Weiser (1848, -i866),Wackernagel (1883), E. Smith (1883), and Hay (1898) may be noted. See, also, Martin Luther; the Hero of the Reformation (New York, 1898),by H. E. Jacobs. Most valuable biographical material is found in Loescher's, Reformations-Ada, and Seckendorf's Hisloria Lutheranismi.

Luther's Theology has been the subject of monographs by Th. Harnack (1862-7), and Kostlin (Stuttgart, 1863; English translation by Charles E. Hay, D. D., Philadelphia, 1897). (Compare Krauth, Conservative Reformation (Philadelphia, 1871); Plitt, Einleitung in die

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