ward Charles X, then was. After the restoration he entered the chamber of peers and in 1820 obtained from the Pope, as a reward for services to the Church, the title and arms of a Roman prince. In 1823 he succeeded Chateaubriand as Ambassador at London; and in 1829 was placed at the head of the new ministry, with the portfolio of foreign affairs. On 27 July 1830 the people were roused to open insurrection by the ordonnances issued on the 25th, and the dynasty of Charles X was overthrown. Polignac accompanied the king to Cherbourg, and then went to Granville, where he was apprehended. The house of peers condemned hint to imprisonment for life, but by the amnesty of 1836 he recovered his liberty and fixed his residence in England.

POLIGNAC, Melchior De, French cardinal and diplomat: b. Puy-en-Velay, Haute-Loire, France, 1661; d. 10 Nov. 1741. He was educated for the priesthood and in 1693 was named ambassador extraordinary from France to Poland, for the purpose of detaching John Sobieski from the league with Austria, and drawing him over to an alliance with France. On the death of Sobieski in 1696 he was employed in endeavoring to effect the election of the Prince of Conti to the Polish throne. His intrigues, though successful in securing Conti's election in 1691, were defeated by Augustus the Strong; Polignac was compelled to leave Poland In 1702. He returned to Paris and in 1712 was appointed plenipotentiary to the Congress of Utrecht, and was afterward Minister to the court of Rome. He became cardinal in 1713. Banished during the regency by reason of his intrigues, he was recalled in 1721, and in 1725 was despatched as Ambassador to Rome, successfully performed his task of reconciling the quarreling factions of the Gallican Church and was raised to the archbishopric of Auch. He returned to France in 1732 and thereafter lived in retirement. As a writer Polignac is known by his didactic poem <Anti-Lucretius, seu de Deo et Natura,' planned to prove the existence of a Supreme Being, the maker and regulator of all things. The ninth book of this work was left unfinished by the author, and the whole poem was not published till after his death. It was later translated into French and Italian.

POLILLO, po-le'lyo, (1) a group of islands of the Philippine archipelago, lying to the north of the entrance of Lamon Bay, southern Luzon, and east of central Luzon. The group consists of the chief island Polillo and 21 small islands, lying to the south and east; area of the island of Polillo, 131 square miles; area of the group, 203 square miles. The formation of the islands is volcanic; the soil is good, and the inhabitants are engaged mostly in agriculture and fishing for home consumption. The island of Polillo is mountainous; the central summit is Malolo, from which short ranges extend in every direction toward the coast. The chief town of the group, Polillo, is situated on the west coast on a bay that affords a good harbor. The group, which was included in the province of Infanta bv the act of the Philippine Commission of June 1902, was afterward annexed to the province of Tayabas. Pop. 2,164.

POLIOMYELITIS. Also known as Infantile Paralysis, or Heine Mcdins Disease. An

acute infectious disease, chiefly involving the spinal cord and its membranes, at times progressing into the upper parts of the mid-brain and brain itself. The agent itself has not been definitely isolated (1919) although the disease has been communicated to lower animals (chiefly monkeys) and has been transmitted through a number of generations of these animals. It is known that it is a filterable virus of some kind, in some ways behaving like the filterable virus of the disease known as hydrophobia. The mode ot ingress is not definitely known, but the naso-pharynx is supposed to carry it. It is a communicable disease and occurs in epidemic form, some epidemics having almost circled the globe. It is chiefly found in temperate zones, and the epidemics have occurred chiefly in the summer or autumn, though winter and spring epidemics are known. It is frequently confused with influenza, epidemic lethargic encephalitis and certain forms of cerebro-spinal meningitis. It affects children chiefly, but not exclusively.

The disease often begins with mild respiratory or gastro-intestinal disturbances. There are vague neuralgic pains and headaches, there may be increased irritability to light, sounds and touch and in from 24 to 72 hours certain groups of muscles are partially or completely paralyzed. These paralyses are usually very unequally distributed, and whole muscle groups or parts of a muscle are involved. The involuntary structures are also at times involved, causing various trophic or vegetative disturbances. The nature of the changes in the spinal cord and meninges are those of an acute infiltrating inflammation in which the blood supply to the cord may be cut off or the inflammatory cedema cause swelling and pressure upon nerve structures. Thus there results a partial or complete destruction of the nerve structures of the spinal cord which are correlated with muscle function. The large cells of the anterior horns of the spinal cord, which are stations in the pathways for the conduction of motor nerve impulses, seem to bear the brunt of the inflammatory changes, and hence present the most obvious changes which were seen in the old cases. But it must be remembered that the pathology which was described in the older accounts was framed upon the study of the old and long since active cases. The modern study has shown the widespread involvement of the nervous system and also shown that the disease may be traced to other than purely nervous structures, even if the latter bear the brunt of the serious left-over destructions. In certain patients the chief destructions are found in the mid-brain tissues; from these result paralyses of the cranial nerves, particularly of the eye-ball muscles and the muscles of the face.

The course of the disease varies considerably. As a rule its worst effects are present within the first week of the illness. After this comes the long and tedious stages of recovery which going on slowly at first may improve more rapidly and then a very long period, years it may be, of very slow and gradual improvement if the proper kind of treatment is pursued.

The treatment is preventive, palliative and restorative. In the preventive treatment great care should be taken not to come in contact with poliomyelitis cases, especially in the early stages. As some of -those sick from the disease may have it in a very light form special quarantine measures are desirable for these suspects. All children taken sick during an epidemic should be carefully isolated and contacts with others made as light as possible. In the acute stages of the disease it is not known what may be beneficial. Lumbar puncture helps some, ergot help others, and specific sera are being evolved which may help others. These sera are constantly being improved and this article can only call attention to this fact and urge the afflicted parents to call upon such wide-awake physicians who would be most likely to be abreast of the times and know what is going on in medicine. In the treatment of the chronic phases great care and detailed attention should be given to conscious muscle training. Electricity, massage and other similar types of therapy are usually unavailing. They are for the most part stupid. The sick and partly degenerated muscles must be activated into tonic action through the only kind of stimulus to which the muscles are physiologically accustomed, namely, the conscious wish to perform movements. This type of therapy requires a detailed knowledge of the use of all of the muscles and the correct type of stimulus to bring out its physiological possibilities. The usual type of gymnastic studies or exercises are as a rule as valueless as the massage and the electricity. Consult Jelliffe and White, 'Diseases of the Nervous System) (3d ed., 1919).

Smith Ely Jelliffe, M.D.

POLISH FOWL, a breed of domestic fowls. See Poultry.

POLISH FRANCISCANS IN AMERICA. A religious community of the Franciscan order of Friar Minors established at Pulaski, Wis., in 1887, through the special efforts of the Ven. Augustin Zeytz, O.F.M., at the request of the Very Rev. Joachim Maciejcyk, O.F.M., the provincial of Galicia, Poland. Through the generosity of Mr. J. J. Hof, a grant of 120 acres of land was secured at Pulaski, in the State of Wisconsin, where three Polish settlements had been started, and on 27 April 1887 the cornerstone of the new monastery of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin was consecrated. The Rev. Erasmus Sobicinski, O.F.M., of Galicia was appointed the first superior. On 8 April 1889 the novitiate was formally opened and the first candidate was received in the order. From this time the institution grew and developed, under successive directors. Father Erasmus, the first superior, having died 4 Feb. 1890. In 1900 a new residence was opened in Green Bay, Wis., where in 1903 a new large convent was built and dedicated. At Pulaski, 9 Sept. 1901, Seraphic College was opened and the building subsequently enlarged to accommodate the ever-growing number of students. The community numbers among its members 14 priests, 31 professed clerics, 30 professed lay brothers, 7 brothers of the Order and 50 students.

POLISH LANGUAGE. The Polish language is one of the Slavic family of tongues and is most nearly related to the Bohemian branch of that family. It belongs to the western group of those languages and is spoken by about 15,000,000 people, in its various dialects. Remarkable for its phonetic richness, Polish

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contains 10 vowels and 35 consonants. The alphabet is the Latin, diacritic marks and combinations being used in addition. The principal peculiarities of pronunciation are the following: c is pronounced like ts in English; ch is a strong guttural, as in German; cz is pronounced like ch in English; rz has a sound compounded of that of r and the sound of z in the word azure, sometimes almost the same as the latter sound alone; sz is pronounced like our sh; w has the sound of v. The consonant 6 has a sound absolutely peculiar to the Polish language: it resembles that of t followed by or combined with a very soft sh. The barred / (/) has a sound common to the Polish with other Slavic tongues: it is produced by sounding the letter / with the point of the tongue firmly pressed against the teeth. The result is a sound approaching that of w. as the / in talk. Among the vowels e and a are pronounced respectively like the French semi-nasals in and on;, i has the sound of i in the English word pique; and y has a sound resembling that of the German «. The tonic accent in Polish words is nearly always on the penult.

Tha Polish is a highly inflected language. There were formerly three numbers, but the dual has been preserved only in the Masovian dialect. There are three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter; ana seven cases, the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, instrumental and locative or prepositional. The diminutives and augmentatives are numerous. The inflections of the verbs indicate not only person and number without the aid of personal pronouns as in Russian, but also the gender of the person speaking, and the person spoken about. The great variety of inflections in Polish permits the extensive use of inversion in the structure of sentences.

The principal dialects of Polish are the Masovian or Mazurian, spoken in the districts around Warsaw and in east Prussia; that of Great Poland, which is spoken chieflv in the districts around Posen, Gnesen and Kalisz; the Silesian spoken to the east of the Oder; the Cracovian or the dialect of Little Poland; and the Polish-Lithuanian as distinguished from the Lithuanian proper the language of some of the greatest Polish writers. Consult Polish dictionaries by Booch-Arkossy, F. (Polish-German, 2 vols., Leipzig 1893 and 1899); Chodzko, A. E. B. (Polish-English 1884); Dictionary by seven Polish scholars (2 vols., Vilna 1856-61); Karlowicz and others (Warsaw 1900-); Kierst and Callier (English, Leipzig 1906); Linde (6 vols., Lemberg 1854-60). Standard grammars include those of Malecki (ib. 1863) and a 'Comparative Historical Grammar* by the same (ib. 1879); Krynski (Warsaw 1903): Malinowski (Posen 1870); Morfill (London T884); Kalina (Lemberg 1883); Manassewitsch (Vienna 1892); Poplinski (1901); Smith (1864); Vymazal (in German, Briinn 1884).

POLISH LITERATURE. Comparatively nothing is known of the Polish language previous to the 15th century. No literary remains in Polish have come down to us previous to that time. For the 15th century itself we have only the 'Florian Psalter,' 'The Song of the Virgin Mary' (Bogorodzico), 'Queen Sofia's Bible,' 'Jadwiga's Prayer Book,' and some Polish sentences in court decrees and town documents. But we have for that period the first Polish grammar, by Jacob Parkosz ( + 1455), in which the first attempt was made to stabilize the language. Whatever literary activity existed in Poland previously and for some time afterward, found its expression through the Latin language. The oldest author, who wrote in the first half of the 12th century, was Martin Gallus, the chronicler. Cholewa (+ 1166) wrote the mythical history of Poland in the form of a dialogue; Kadlubck (12th and 13th centuries), Bogufal, Baszko, Polak, Janko of Czarnkow were historians before Jan Dlugosz (1415-1480), the most famous of all the Polish historians. From the 13th century on there were many scientists in Poland, such as the physicist Ciolek, the humanist Gregory of Sanska, the astrologer and medical writer Glogowczyk, and many others who wrote in Latin. There was also a considerable number of famous preachers, such as Laskarysa, Nicholas of Blon, Vincent Kol.

In the 16th century Polish literature develops by leaps and bounds and soon reaches the Golden Age. The religious and political questions of the day, arising from the conflict of Catholicism and Protestantism, brought into the field a very large number of writers, such as Wujka, Orzechowski, Modrzewski. One of the most famous orators was Peter Skarga (1536-1612), and among the historians of the time are Peter Bielski (1495-), his son Joachim Bielski (1540-), Stryjkowski (1547-), who wrote in Polish, and Matthew of Miechow (+1513), Kromer (1512-1589), Gwagnin (+1614), Bzowski (1567-1627), who wrote in Latin. Among the scientists the first place belongs to Nicholas Kopernik, who wrote in Latin. In the belles lettres we start at once with a poet of the first order; Nicholas Rej (1515-1577), whose 'Personal View on the Life of an Honorable Man* enjoyed great popularity. Gornicki (1527-1603) dealt with the political troubles of the time, wrote his 'The Courtier,' which was based on Castiglione's 'II libro del cortcgiano,' and translated Seneca. Kochanowski (1530-1584) wrote political satires and a large number of elegies and epigrams, which had a great influence, not only by his trenchant criticisms of conditions, but also by shaping the language into a perfect instrument of expression. Other poets were Klonowicz and Szymonowicz, who wrote both in Polish and Latin, the three Kochanowskis and Zimorowicz. who wrote in Polish, and Krzychi, Jan Dantyszek, Janicki, who wrote in Latin. The satire took a peculiar turn in the 16th century. In the village of Babin a landed proprietor and a judge formed a "Babin Republic," in which prattlers were proclaimed as statesmen and other officers were lauded in proportion to the incumbent's incompetency. The Polish kings took interest in the humorous republic, and the Latin writings of the Babin republic exercised quite an influence on the politics and the literature of the time.

The second period, which lasted through the 17th and half of the 18th century, is one of decay, and is known as the "macaronic, panegyric, scholastic" period, when the language itself was degraded by "macaronism," that is, a senseless surcharging with Latin terms, which was a reflex of the confusion of ideas prevail

ing in political life. This period abounds in private memoirs, where chronicled events mingle with quasi-philosophic reflections. One of the sanest among these men, who wrote in Polish, was Starowolski (1588-1656); others were Pasek, Jerlicz, Andrew Fredro. Among the Latin chroniclers must be mentioned Piasecki (1586-1649), Albrecht Radziwill (15801656), Zaluski (+1711). Mlodzianowski (16221686), a Jesuit priest, excelled in the elegance of diction in a time which was rather poor in orators. Among the poets we have Twardowski ( + 1660), the most prolific versifier of contemporary events in the 17th century, Opalinski (1609-1656), who wrote chiefly satires, WacIaw Potocki (1622-1695), chiefly known for his epic, 'The Chocim War,' in which the language reminds one of the purity of the previous period, Kochowski (1633-1699), the official chronicler of John III, who also left a large number of Polish and Latin verses, mainly of a religious nature, Jerome Morsztyn (+1655), who stood under French influence and preferred satire, Andrew Morsztyn (1620-1700), a cousin of the former, who still more followed the French models, and also translated Corneille's Cid and the works of Tasso, Stanislaw Morsztyn (1630-), who translated Seneca and Racine, Elizabeth Druzbacka (1687-1760), one of the first Polish authoresses. The most famous of the poets who wrote in Latin was Sarbiewski (1595-1640), and there was a whole host of Latin panegyrists, who hardly deserve mention. The drama barely made a beginning, but none was good enough to survive.

The third period was one of regeneration and lasted until the appearance of Mickiewicz in 1822. In politics, Karwicki, Leszczynski and Jablonowski advocated a much more sober attitude than had existed in the time of political anarchy, and their view had much to do with reshaping Polish literature. Konarski (1700-1773) did probably more than anyone else to bring reason back to literature, and much was done to improve and settle the literary norm. Among the grammarians must be mentioned Kopczynski (1735-1817) and Mrozinski (1784-1839), while Linde (1771-1847) produced his enormous Polish dictionary in six volumes, the forerunner of Grimm's German dictionary and still the object of admiration of philologists.

We get now for the first time historians, as against the chroniclers of the previous period. Lojko (1717-79) wrote three volumes of 'Polish and Lithuanian Institutions' and a large number of historical essays. Albertrandi (1731-1808), an Italian by birth, wrote much on Wladyslaw Jagiello, the Casimirs, and Polish history in general. Naruszewicz's (1733-96) 'History of the Polish People' was a model for many historical writers. Other historians were Waga (1739-1801), Bandtke (1768-1835), Golebiowski (1773-1849), and documents were collected and discussed by Kitowicz, Wybicki, Niemcewicz, Kozmian, Kilinski and others. Mention must also be made of the political writers of the Four Years' Diet, Kollatay (1750-1812), Staszyc (17551826). Nor was there any lack of orators, in whom Poland had before abounded. We have Soltyk, Count Casimir Sapieha, Count Adam Czartoryski, Matuszewicz and the preachers Lachowski and Woronicz. The arts flourished. and in 1816 Czerwinski was able to write 'A History of Polish Civilization and Learning from the Tenth to the End of the Seventeenth Century.' We have also the literary historians Chrominski (1759-1810), Ossolinski (17481826), Bentkowski (1781-1852), Count Gsinski (1770-1842).

The first poet of this period is Trembecki (1725^-1812), who stood under the influence of Voltaire, and was interested in poetry just for poetry's sake. Wegierski (1755-1787) imitated Boileau and other foreign authors in his love lyrics. Krasicki (1735-1801) wrote mostly in a satirical vein. He gained his first reputation by his 'Fables,' wrote a 'Mouseid' and similar poems, several prose tales, and translated Ossian, Lucian and Plutarch. Naruszewicz, who has already been mentioned as a historian, wrote fables, satires, idyls and odes, translated Tacitus and composed two tragedies, 'Guido' and 'Tancred.' Karpinski (1741-1825), a court poet, wrote pseudo-classic idyls and religious songs of a more substantial value. Kniaznin (1750-1807), too, wrote to please the courtiers, but his 'Centennial Celebration of the Victory at Vienna' has more real worth. He translated Lafontaine, Ossian, Anacrcon, wrote idyls in the style of the German Gessner, and a number of historical dramas. A more sterling poet was Woronicz (1757-1829), whose larger works, 'Asarmot,' 'Lech,' 'The Wislica Diet' were never finished, and whose 'Hymn to God' is the only one that has escaped oblivion. Niemcewicz (1757-1841) wrote a large number of dramas, among which the comedy, 'The Ambassador's Return,' is probably the best He lived a long time in America, where he had come to join Kosciuszko. After his return to Poland he wrote some historical poems and devoted himself to historical studies, 'The Reign of Sigismund III,' 'Memoirs of Ancient Poland' and others. He also wrote his own memoirs and a number of novels, among which 'Jan of Teczyn' is probably the best. With him begins the Polish novel. Other poets of .this period are Kozmian, Godebski, Keklewski, Morawski. The number of dramatic writers during this time is very great. The mediocre attempts of Princess Radziwill (+1753) and Bogomolec (172090) were soon followed by the successful adaptations from Bcaumarchais and Moliere, by Zablocki (1750-1821), who satirized the negative sides of Polish society. Boguslawski (1760-1829) began his dramatic career by translating for the stage; then he became the founder and manager of the Warsaw Theatre, when he wrote his best original drama, 'The Cracovians and the Mountaineers,' in which he introduced folksongs. Other dramatists were Wezyk, Felinski, Dmuszewski, Prince Czartoryski.

The Romanticism of the West naturally affected Polish literature as well. As in Germany, so in Poland, collections of folksongs appeared in the beginning of the 19th century, such as by Zaleski, Wojcicki, Pauli and a little later, the monumental collection in dozens of volumes by Kolberg. With the growth of the new movement the pseudo-classicism which had prevailed heretofore came to an abrupt end. Brodzinski (1791-1835) stirred up a discussion in 1818 by his review of 'Classicism,' and him

self set the example for a new movement by his heartfelt lyrics and still more with his lectures on esthetics, which he began in 1822. He is chiefly remembered for his idyl 'Wieslaw,' in which he introduced scenes from peasant life, and is considered as the forerunner of the great Mickiewicz. The romanticism brought to the front the writers of the Ukraine, the last stronghold of a romantic past, such as Malczeski ( 1792-1826), Goszczynski, Zaleski, Padura, Grabowski, Groza. Malczeski (17921826) wrote an epic, 'Maria, a Ukrainian Story'; Goszczynski (1803-76) is best remembered by his poem, 'Saint John's Feast,' which deals with the life of the Tatra mountaineers, and a number of ballads; many of Zaleski's (1802-86) lyrical poems have been set to music. These poets were far surpassed by the Lithuanian Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855).

Mickiewicz gained his first reputation by some romantic ballads, 'The Switez Maid,' 'Lilies,' and with his epic 'Grazyna' and 'The Wake' accentuated the quarrel between the classicists and romanticists. Probably the best of his ballads is 'The Three Budryses,' though 'Mrs. Twardowska,' 'The Little Fish,' and many others are of an equally high order. A nine months' stay at Odessa was productive of a series of love songs in the setting of the Tartar Crimea. In 1834 there appeared his famous epic 'Pan Thaddeus,' in which he treated the romantic episode of Lithuania's last raid to enforce a legal decision. The remaining days of his life were dimmed by a deep mysticism.

The period was particularly rich in poets. Count Krasinski's (1812-59) greatest work_ is his 'Undivine Comedy,' a highly imaginative poem; Slowacki (1809-1849) produced three dramas in verse, 'Kordyan,' 'Mazeppa,' 'Balladyna,' and a number of poetical stories; Garczynski (1806-1833) wrote fiery sonnets of war; of Pol's (1807-1872) many songs, probably his 'Sing of Our Land,' written at Mickiewicz's request, excels for simplicity of diction and warmth of feeling; among the other lyrics of the time must be mentioned Gaszynski, Morawski, Witwickij Jaskowski, Wasilewski, Lenartowicz, Ujejski, Romanowski, Balza, Grudzynski. Not less numerous are the epic poets. Syrokomla (1823-62) treated sentimentally the history connected with his native home on the Niemen and also tried himself in the drama and translated the Latin poets of Poland into Polish. Zielinski (1809-81) wrote an epic, 'The Kirghiz,' based on his banishment to Siberia. Other poets of this class are Zmorski, Bielowski, Falenski, Odyniec, Chodzko, Korsak. Kaminski (1777-1855) was the first one to change the state into a national institution, and at the same time Alexander Fredro (1793-1876) and his son John Alexander Fredro (1829-) produced for it a large number of comedies. Other dramatists were Korzeniowski, Magnuszewski, Anczyc, Balucki, Asnyk and many more.

The novel first found its expression in Rzewuski's 'The Memorable Deeds of Master Seweryn Soplica' (1839), after which Chodzko (1795-1861) produced his 'Lithuanian Pictures,' while Skarbek (1792-1866), Wojcicki (1807-79) and a large number of others enriched Polish literature with their excellent stories, but the

palm 01 productivity and manysidedness belongs to Kraszcwski (1812—), who accomplished the phenomenal deed of writing not less than 700 volumes in every imaginable line of literary endeavor. Among the distinguished historical writers must be mentioned Lelewel, Morawski, Moraczewski, Siemienski, Schmitt, Szajnocha, Liske, Szujski, while the history of literature is represented by Bcntkowski, Wiszniewski, Lukaszewicz, Nehring; the history of language by Malecki; bibliography by Estreicher. There is not a line of literary work which does not count some eminent authors.

The last quarter of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century continue the activities . so auspiciously begun a century earlier. Comte's positivism during this time finds its expression in Swietochowski's historical essays, while in the novel its representative is Eliza Orzeszko, who appears as the advocate of progress and science. Others belonging to this school are Zacharjasiewicz, who described the dark sides of bourgeois life; Jez, who gave sketches of the Yugo-Slavs; Balucki, who championed the lower middle class. The greatest poetess of this period is Konopnicka, but the period is particularly rich in poets,—Brzozowsla, Jankowski, Urbanski, Gomulicki and others. Sienkiewicz, too, had begun his career as a positivist, but when this fell into disrepute he turned his attention to the past, producing the famous trilogy, 'By Fire and Sword,' 'The Deluge,' 'Pan Wolodyjowski.' Among his very many novels dealing with antiquity, probably none gained such wide recognition as his 'Quo Vadis.' Positivism finds its last adepts in Prus, some of whose novels have been widely translated.

With Wietkiewicz's study, <Our Art and Criticism,' naturalism makes its entry into Polish literature, and to this school belong Dygasinski, Zapolska, Sever, Reymont, while Zeromski and Sieroszewski may be denominated as impressionists. Meanwhile Cracow develops a school of modernists, among whom excel Lieder, Komornicka. while Szczepanski gathered together all these forces in 'Zycie,' a periodical founded by him in 1897. The number of talents in this group is very large. In addition to the names just given may be mentioned Tetmajer, Rydel, Zulawski, Perzynski, Mirandolla, Lada and later Przybyszewski, Laskowski, Kondratowicz, Soltan. This modernism deteriorated into decadence, but amidst it blossomed the poets of might, Orkan, Danilowski, Micinski, who sing of loftier ideals. It is hard to foretell what the regeneration of Poland has in store for it in literature, but the extremely rich immediate past presages a brilliant future.

Bibliography.— For a historical study of the Polish language consult the publications of the Cracow Academy of Sciences, and the works of Kaluzniacki, Leciejewski, Nehring, etc., and for grammar the works of Bruckner, Krynski, Malecki, Matusick, Ulaszyn; for the dialects, Karlowicz, Dembowski and Blat The Polish-English and English-Polish dictionaries of Rvkaczewski (London 1849). Chodzko (Berlin 1874), Kierst (Leipzig 1896), will be found useful, while for a Polish-Polish dictionary Karlowicz's 'Slownik jezyka polskiego' (still in process of publication) will far surpass the

excellent older one by Linde (Lwow 1854-60). Polish literature may be studied, in Polish, in the works of Bentkowski, Breza, Chmielowski, Wasilewski, Wiszniewski, but especially in Wiek XIX, slo lat mysli polskiej (Warszawa 1906-). In German we have the works of Brandes, 'Polen' (also in English, London 1903), Bruckner, Kurtzmann, Lipnicki, Nitschmann, Weckowski and in English, N. Forbes, 'Polish Literature,' a lecture (London and New York 1911). In English we have also the collections of E. C. M. Benecke, 'More Tales by Polish Authors,' (New York 1916); Sir John Bowring, 'Specimens of the Polish Poets,' (London 1827); P. Sobolewiki, 'Poets and Poetry of Poland,' (Chicago 1883).

Leo Wiener.

POLISH SUCCESSION WAR, a conflict arising in 1733 from the contest for the Polish throne, between Stanislas Leszczynski and Augustus III of Saxony. (See Poland). Stanislas Leszczynski was supported by France, while Russia and Austria embraced the cause of Augustus III. The war, however, speedily assumed the character of a struggle on the part of France to undermine the power of Austria. While Leszczynski was besieged in Dantzig by a Russian force and finally compelled to flee, France, in alliance with Spain and Sardinia, overran Lorraine, Milan, Sicily and Naples. There was little active fighting, however, and in 1735 preliminaries of peace were signed at Vienna, confirmed by a definitive treaty three years later. Augustus III was recognized as king of Poland; Stanislas Leszczynski received the honorary title of king, with the duchies of Lorraine and Bar, which, on his death, were to revert to France; the dispossessed Duke of Lorraine was to be compensated with the Duchy of Tuscany on the extinction of the house of Medici; and Naples and Sicily were bestowed by the emperor on the Spanish infante, Don Carlos, in exchange for Parma and Piacenza. The peace treaty was finally settled at Vienna in 1738. See also Poland and consult 'Cambridge Modern History' (Vol. VI, New York 1909).

POLISHING AND POLISHING MATERIALS. The name polishing is applied to the process by which the surface of a material is made to assume the most brilliant appearance of which it is capable. The degree of polish or brilliancy which a given surface can take on is in general proportionable to the hardness of the material. The article to he polished must first be made smooth. The softer bodies, such as wood, alabaster, ivory, are smoothed by means of glass-paper and pumice-stone; metals, with emery, pumice-stone, and polishing-stones; glass, with sand and emery; and precious stones with emery. In the case of wood the polishing is effected by rubbing with French polish. Polishing wheels are commonly used in the case of metals, being discs of wood covered with leather, and on w-hich pulverized tripoli, chalk-rouge, tin-putty, etc., is sprinkled. Diamond powder, or the powder of other hard stones, is used to polish gems. See Emery; Pumice-stone.

POLISHING SLATE, a rock occurring mostly in beds of the Tertiary formation. Texture, earthy, soft, friable. It consists of the

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