the south side, while the Smiths built a large one, for that day, on the north side. These mills were put in operation in 1798. But as General Massie did_n0t design to enter into competition with his neighbors across the creek, his mill, after supplying his own needs and those of his neighbors who were best accommodated there, fell into disuse, and was soon washed away. The Smith mill was enlarged and improved from time to time, and became a prominent factor in the development of the country. It is stated that for fully a decade most of the corn and wheat of Highland county was brought there for grinding, and the Smith mill continued to have a monopoly of the business in its immediate vicinity, for many years afterward. The Smith settlement attracted the families of Zachariah Taylor, and Robert Halliday, who came early in the year 1799. They remained at the falls about a year, and in 1800 bought farms of General Massie, and located as neighbors to Jacob Hare.

The Smith brothers conceived the idea that conditions were favorable to the c.\'istence of a town at the falls, the mills and numerous residents being a nucleus. Another consideration was the fact that no other site as favorable could be found in all the region, with their superb water powe1', the prestige gained by the pioneer mills, and a rich agricultural district surrounding. Accordingly, in 1800, they employed a surveyor, and laid out a town, on a very liberal plan. The streets were named in honor of the Revolutionary heroes whom the war had brought into prominencc—all except two—these were named Virginia and Hudson. The founders of the town being of Dutch extraction, they patriotically named it. Xew Amsterdam. For a time the village gave promise of a successful career. Actual streets took the place of the blazed trees left by the surveyor. Niimeroiis cabins, quickly erected, together with the array of houses and vehicles about the mill, gave it the appearance of a bustling, thriving little village in the backwoods. A few stores and places of resort were established, and then came the climax, “A malarial district,” more formidable in the mouth of public repute than in actual existence; the establishment of newer and better mills above and below, the former by Highland county people, equally zealous, and prompt. to take advantage of favoring circumstances: the latter by (‘hristian Bonner, whose plant became the Mecca of the pioneer settlement, and so continued for many years; these, with the reputed unfavorable sanitary conditions, and the death-knell of New Amsterdam was sounded.

John Gray came from Pennsylvania in the fall of 1799. He settled, tclnporarily, on Pee Pee creek, in Higllland county; but early in 1800 he removed to Paint township, and settled on Twin creek. He bought a hundred acres of land from which not a tree had been cut, and he and his wife entered upon the herculean task of preparing these acres for cultivation. Two small children accompanied

these parents into the wilderness; and probably, on account of these, Gray established a school at his own house, which he taught for several winters.

Other early settlers in the Twin creek neighborhood, who located there prior to 1800, or in that year, were George Brown, George Walker, Thomas Mahan, Jacob Myers and Thomas McDonald. These families, with the Grays, constituted the settlers on Paint creek, within the bounds of the township in the year 1800.

George Brown was a man of progressive spirit and wide influence among the early settlers. He took an active interest in the organization period and in the educational affairs of the infant settlement. The first building erected for school purposes within the township was on Mr. Brown’s farm. This was in keeping with its surroundings, a typical pioneer affair, even to the oiled paper for window lights, the rude log hut, with its wide-spreading fireplace and split logs for seats. The text books and “course of study” were printed on a. shingle, and many of the old settlers lived to tell in recent years of their infantile struggles in mastering orthography from this primitive “text book.” John Gray taught this school, and was followed by Henry S. Fernandus and John Organ. Numerous descendants of these old pioneers, particularly of the Brown family, still live in Paint township.

Alexander Scroggs was one of the earliest settlers, and it is believed that he was a resident of the township before the opening of the Smith mill. Abraham Pepple was an early settler in the Paint creek valley, but his first residence was in Paxton township, coming into Paint township about 1805. A numerous posterity still perpetuate his name as a worthy pioneer and useful citizen. Joseph Rockhold came from Pennsylvania and located on High Bank p1'flili6 in 17 97. In 1802 he removed to Cave run in Paint township Where he ended his days, leaving a large estate. He was a captain in the war of 1812, and served over thirty years as justice of the peace. Noble Crawford accompanied the Massie party in 17 96. He W85 also a Pennsylvanian, and settled on High Bank prairie below Chillicothe. About 1800 he located on Buckskin creek in Paint township, and there built a saw mill which he operated for about ten years, when he removed from the count-v. William S. Crawford came from Kentucky in 1805 and located" on a farm in Paint township, where he died. Some of his descendants still live in the town'ship. Williarn Smith located in Paint township in 1804 and became a neighbor to the Hallidays, \Varnicks and Irwins. They @St#1b' lished a school in 1805 on the farm of Mr. Smith, the pupils for several years being representatives only of these families. J 1111185 Caldwell, mentioned in another chapter, was the teacher in thifl S°h°°1- -T011Edmistoll, a prominent local politician, became a resident of the township about 1805, and Hugh McClellancl came about the same time. Nathan Hays was a soldier in the war of 1812, and served the township in various official positions. He was a justice of the peace for six years. Thomas Edmonson, another pioneer, served as a soldier in the Indian wars and in the second war with Great Britain.

Capt. Zachary Taylor, a nephew of the famous old general, served in the war of 1812, and lived to old age, a resident of Paint township. Other prominent early settlers were Joseph Ogle, M. Benner

(the first shoemaker in the township), Jesse Cox, Adam Kerr, Tim-'

othy and Daniel Hixon, Andrew Knuckles, Mr. Weller (father of Frederick Weller), Thomas Cox and Seth Sayre. Of later coming, yet classed as early settlers, were several Middleton families, and James Stinson. Dennis Ogle was a member of the legislature in 1869 and a man of prominence and influence.

Rapids Forge, a famous manufacturing establishment for many years before 1860, is described in the Indust-rial chapter of this Work. It became, by far, the greatest industry in Ross county, and probably its volume of business was not exceeded, in its day, at any point in the Scioto valley.

Under the head of religious organizations, almost the entire history of Paint township may be summed up in the general title of Methodism. The clergymen _of this denomination were early on the ground, and their aggressiveness and persistent labors were rewarded in the early days with numerous organizations of that faith. But the only persisting church of that society is the one which suffered greatest reverses in its early history. Rapids Forge church was the first to have an existence in the township. It was organized in the early days of the last century, and services were held for a number of years in the homes of the members. The first public meetings were held at the house of James Havens, near the rapids. The organization of a church was effected, more with an idea of a missionary effort to temporarily benefit the spiritual condition of the community than with the thought of a permanent organization which should survive the century. Though this condition was most devoutly wished, yet the circumstances were so unfavorable that it could scarcely be expected. The settlers were isolated and few in numbers. They were generally poor, and though possessing the relimous fervor essential to success, the conditions were decidedly against them. But an organization of a church was effected, and it passed through the varying fortunes of its pioneer existence, meeting discouragements and temporary dissolutions until, phoenix-like, there was reared a lasting organization on the ruins. In 1828 it began to assume a position of stability and prominence which was accelerated by the encouragement of the Rapids Forge industry, and recognition and support from that direction. But the organization was abandoned on several occasions, and resuscitated and reorganized under the zealous labors of successive pastors. Enlistments in the civil war finally compassed its defeat in 1865, and the doors were closed until 1872. In that year Rev. Mr. Saunders, of the Cincinnati conference, reopened the old building, and the succeeding two years he served the people regularly, receiving his support through individual contributions. It then was attached to the Bainbridge circuit for the second or third time, and became a regular preaching appointment on that circuit. In recent years the church has been more than usually successful, and the membership embraces a large number of prominent families in the community.

" Bethesda church was organized by Rev. George W. Maley, the pastor in charge of the Highland‘ circuit, in 1831. The class was formed at the house of James Middleton, consisting of twelve members, and these became the nucleus to the church of the above name. A church building was erected in 1845, and dedicated in August of that year. The church still has an existence. I.0cke’s chapel was erected in 1845, on land donated by George Brown, a residence building being remodeled and moved to the church site. Regular services were held at this place for many years; but the property finally passed into the hands of the Wesleyan Methodists who erected Wesley chapel on the grounds.

The Methodist. Protestant church was organized in the early ’30_’S and had an existence for several years, when the place of worship was moved beyond the limits of the county. Cave Run church was organized near the Twin creek road, by a denomination known B8 the “New Lights.” In 1845 the church passed into the hands of the “Radical Methodists,” but the organization was finally abandoned, and the persisting members attached themselves to the South Salem and Bainbridge churches.

About 1840, Rev. Robert Calvert, a Dunkard preacher, began to hold public services of that denomination at the homes of diflierent persons in the eastern part of Paint township. At the same timfl the New Lights and both branches of the Methodist church were holding services in the same community. As they gained strength, the Methodists built churches, and the Dunkards had the field to themselves. This denomination was prosperous, also, and in 1872 they built a neat house of worship near the Wesley chapel, in Which they have since held their services.

Paint township has today within her borders nine excellent schools, in charge of a corps of specially trained instructors, who receive compensation according to their attainments and efficiency

No township in the county has a better system of public Schools or 8 more appreciative class of patrons.

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CHAPTER XXV.

SPRINGFIELD TOWNSHIP.

on which date it was set off from Green township, with

boundaries described as follows: “Beginning on the

Scioto river at the Cedar bank, the northwest corner of township eight, in range twenty-one, and township nine, range twenty; thence down the Scioto river to Joseph Gardner’s ferry; thence along the line of townships seven, eight and nine, to the southeast corner of section thirty-two; thence north to the northwest corner of section five; thence along the line of townships eight, nine and ten, to place of beginning. The said township to be known by the name of Springfield.” The house of James Wallace was designated, by the same order, as the place for holding elections; but this was subsequently changed to a more central location, at the house of Zachariah Jones. Since the division of the township into two voting precincts, elections have been held at Hopetown and school district number four.

The surface of the township is generally broken, and, in many localities, exceedingly rugged and hilly. A narrow stretch of the valley of the Scioto bounds the western end of the township, and comprises, by far, the greater portion of level land within its borders. There are many interesting natural features within the bounds of Springfield township, not the least of which is historic Mount Logan. This is A rugged eminence, rising to a height of six hundred and seventy-four feet above the level of the Scioto. From its lofty summit, a delightful view is aflorded, taking in, at a glance, the beautiful city of Chillicothe a mile to the westward, the Scioto valley above and below, for many miles, and Circleville in the distance. The location of Columbus is also seen from the crest, as marked by a heavy cloud of smoke. North Pinnacle is another enduring monument in the same range, almost as lofty, and presenting :1 view as entrancing. The “ancient race” has also left traces of their handiwork in this township, in t-he form of a combined square and circle, embracing about twenty acres. But the depredations of the plow have mostly

T HE organization of this township dates from March 9, 1808,

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