Dimorphothcca aurantiaca.—This plant is a showy and beautiful annual from the Cape, with Marguerite-like blossoms 2 inches or more in diameter, coloured a rich orange-gold, and rendered the more conspicuous by the rather dark coloured disc. The plant, as shown, is about 18 inches high, neat in habit, and profuse in its flowering. From Messrs. Bars & Sons, Covent Harden.

Paonia duora alba.—A single-flowered variety like P. Emodii, with rounded petals that are cupped, and giving a saucer-like outline to the flower. From Messrs. R. W. Wallace & Co., Colchester.

Tulip Duchtss of Westminster.—A very handsome rose-coloured Darwin Tulip with shapely flowers that are delicately tinged with pinkishwhite near the edges. It is a conspicuous variety in a selection of these bulbous flowers. From Mr. Alex. M. Dickson, East Keal Manor, Spilsby.

FRUIT.

For so huge an exhibition, the display of fruit was very meagre, being limited to three trade collections, not a single private garden being represented by an exhibit. Such a deficiency is apt to lead strangers to British horticulture to assume that the food products of gardening are lightly esteemed, when compared with the marvellous wealth of flowering material seen on every hand. To assume so much is to materially undervalue British fruit culture under glass. Still its comparative non-representation on this occasion calls for remark.

Messrs. Thos. Kiveks & Sons, Sawbridgeworth, as usual, had in the large Orchid tent one of their customary collections of fruit trees in pots. There were some three dozen Peach, Nectarine, and Cherry trees of large size, all in fine fruit. The Peaches were both first early varieties being Duke of York and Duchess of Cornwall j the Nectarines were all of that superb variety Cardinal, and the Cherries were Early Rivers, Frogmore Bigarreau, and Elton. There were also several small Fig trees and a collection in pots of the Citrus family.

Messrs. G. Bunyard & Co., Maidstone, staged a remarkable collection of 100 dishes and baskets of well-preserved Apples, and, apart from the general excellence of the samples, the way they had been preserved created wide interest. These dishes were backed by several pot trees of the early Cherry Guigne d'Annonay. Specially fine Apples were Calville Rouge, High Canons, Smart's Prince Albert, Ontario, Belle de Pontoise, Calville Malingre, Wagener, Calville des Femmes (large and handsome), Newton Wonder, Norfolk Beefing, Alfriston, Prince Alfred (very fine), Farmer's Seedling, Bramley's Seedling, Tibbett's Pearmain, King of Tompkins' County, Lane's Prince Albert, Mere de Menage, Winter Queening, Belle Dubois (very fine), Gabalva, Beauty of Herts, and Brownlees's Russet; also Peais Belle des Arbes and Easter Orange.

Messrs. Laxton Brothers, Bedford, sent up a most attractive collection of Strawberries of picked samples. There were 16 baskets and dishes, and two dozen plants in fine fruit. These latter, comprised Laxton's Pineapple, Epicure (rich dark fruits), and Bedford Champion. In addition to the above, Royal Sovereign was largely represented. The firm added to the exhibit in dozens, in baskets, superb fruits of Early Alexander Peach and Cardinal Nectarine, and a few dishes of brown Turkey Figs.

VEGETABLES were moderately shown, only trade or market products being presented. The most interesting collection certainly was one of Messrs. SutTon & Sons, Reading, of Potato tubers and plants of divers species in pots. The tuber display comprised b'2 varieties, shown in dishes, the product of planting in frames on beds of leaves giving very mild warmth on February 26. None were large, but all were of most acceptable table size. Of those kidney-shaped and specially noticeable were Gladiator, Superlative, May Queen, White Beauty of Hebron, Myatt's and Sutton's Ashleafs, Seedling 159, and Supreme, whilst of coloured kidneys, King Edward VII., Purple Eyes, and Mr Bresee were the best. Of white, round forms, British Queen, Up-to-Date, Sutton's Seedling, Sir J. Llewellyn, Abundance, Nonsuch, Ideal, Harbinger, and Earty Puritan were good, and of coloured rounds, Reading Russett, Lord

Tennyson, The Dean, and the Sutton Flourball. The pot plants included those of Blue Giant and Commersonii Violet to show identity, and of species S. Commersonii from Uruguay, and other forms; S. etuberosum, with foliage most resembling that of the garden Potato; S. maglia, S. tuberosum, S. verrucosum, and others.

Messrs. Watkins & Simpson, Henrietta Street, London, sent a collection of imported vegetables, the most meritorious of which was a number of fine white solid heads of Cauliflower Early Six Weeks. There were numerous bunches of Early Frame Carrot, Early Long White Radishes, and Romaine Early Frame Cos and Cold Frame Cabbage Lettuces, neither goodhearted samples.

An interesting collection came from the Thatcham Fruit and Flower Farm, Berks, of glass-grown samples, prominent amongst which were numerous bunches of Early Frame Carrot, similar to what had been seen in the imported collection. There were quantities of the long white Marteau Turnip, like Jersey Navel, very good Paris white Cos Lettuce, white Dutch Cabbage Lettuce, and F'rench Breakfast Radishes. These products were stated to have been grown on the "Maraiber" systems.

Very fine oval-shaped bundles of Asparagus came from Mr. R. Stevenson, Burwell, Cambridge; oblong bundles from Mr. Godfrey, and round bundles from Mr. Harwood, both of Colchester, all the samples being remarkably fine.

Awards made by the Council.
Veitchian Ccp.

F. Mcntcith Ogilvie. Esq., for Orchids.
Gold Medals.

J. Veitch & Sons, Ltd., for foliage plants, flowers, &c.; \V. Cutbush & Sod, for Roses, Carnat.ons, Alpines; Sander & Son, for Orchids and foliage plants; Charlesworth it Co., for Orchids; Major G. L. Hollord, CLE., C.V.O., for Orchids; Hugh Low & Co., for Orchids, Carnations, &c.

Silver-gilt Flora Medal.

T. S. Ware, Ltd., for Begonias and Carnations; H. Canncll & Sons, for Roses, Calceolarias, Cannas, &c.; J. Carter & Co., for flowering plants; G. Mount, for Roses; Hobbies, Ltd., for Roses; G. Reuthe, for herbaceous plants, &c.; Alex. Dickson and Sons, Ltd., for Tulips; J. Hill & Son, for Ferns; A. J. A. Bruce, for Sarracenias; Armstrong & Brown, for Orichds; H. Burnett, for Carnations; A. F. Dulton, for Carnations; R. Ashworth, for Orchids.

SiLVER-CILT Knigmtiah MEDAL.

T. Rivers & Sons, for fruit trees in pots; Laxton Bros., for Strawberries.

Silver Curs.

Sutton & Sons, for miscellaneous plants; Barr & Sons, for herbaceous plants; G. Bunyard & Cp., Ltd., for herbaceous plants and fcuit; J. Waterer X: Sons, for Rhododendrons, &c.; May & Sons, for Ferns, &c.; L. R. Russell, for Clematis, shrubs, &c.; R. Smith & Co., for Clematis and herbaceous plants; C. Turner, for Roses and Azaleas; G. Paul & Sons, for Roses, &c.; Jackman & Son, for herbaceous plants; Fulham & Son, for Alpines, &c.; J. Cheal & Sons, for trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants; \V. Paul & Son, for Roses, &c.; T. Cripps & Son, for Acers, &c.; R. P. Ker & Sons, for Hippcastrums; A. Perry, for herbaceous plants; R. & G. Cuthbert, for Azaleas, &c.; Hon. V. Gibbs, for Pelargoniums and Streptocarpus; C. F. Raphael, for Carnations, &c.; Blackmore & Langdon, for Begonias; R. Wallace & Co., for herbaceous plants; Sir J. Colman, Bart., for Orchids; W. James, Esq., for Carnations and Pxonies; J. Cypher & Sons, for Orchids, &c.; M. Prichard, for herbaceous plants.

Silver.Gilt Banksmn Medals.

J. Peed & Son, for Caladiums and Gloxinias; Baker's, for herbaceous plants; J. R. Box, for Begonias; Craven Nursery Co., for Alpines; Fromow & Sons, for trees, shrubs, &c.; R. C. Notcutt, for herbaceous plants.

Silver Lindley Medal.

F. Mtnteith Ogilvic, Esq., for Orchids.
Silver Kmghtian Medals.

Thatcham Fruit Farm, for vegetables; Stephenson, for Asparagus.

Silver Flora Medals.

F. Cant & Co., for Roses; D. Russell & Son, for trees, shrubs, &c.; J. Laing & Sons, for Begonias, Caladiums, &c.; C. W. Brcadmorc, lor Sweel Peas; A. R. Upton, for herbaceous plants; Webb & Son, for Calceolarias; B. R. Cant & Sons, for Roses; Dobbic iv Co., for Violas etc.; Hogg & Robertson, for Tulips; J. & A. Mtilian, for Orchids; J. W. Moore, for Orchids; R. Gill, for Rhododendrons. Silver Banksian Medals.

J. D. Enys, for plants of Myosotidium; W. P. Horton, for Alpines; King's Acre Nurseries Co., for herbaceous plants; A. M. Wilson, for Tulips; W. Bull & Sons, for Orchids and foliage plants; H. Crane, for Violas; Misses Hopkins, for Alpines, &c.; F. Lillcy, for bulbous plants; G. Prince j& Co., for Roses; Watkins & Simpson, for vegetables; R. H. Bath & Co., Ltd., for Tulips and Carnations; A. H. Gwillim, for Begonias; A. J. Harwood, for Asparagus; T. "annock, for Lilacs, &c.; B. Ladhnms, Ltd., for her

aceous plants; W. H. Page, for Carnations; Bell & Sheldon, for Carnations.

MARKETS.

COVENT GARDEN, May 27.

[We cannot accept any responsibility for the subjoined reports. They are furnished to us regularly every Wednesday, by the kindness of several of the principal salesmen, who are responsible for the quotations. It must be remembered that these quotations do not represent the prices on any particular day, but only the general averages for the week preceding the date of our report. The prices depend upon the quality of the samples, the way in which they are packed, the supply in the market, and the demand, and they may fluctuate, not only from day to day, but occasionally several times in one day.—Eo.j

Cat Flowers. Ac: Average Wholesale Prices.

s.d. s.d. Anemones per doz.

bunches ... 2 0-80

— double pink ... 10-16

— fulgens, per

dozen bunches 2 0-80 Azalea, white, per

dozen bunches 4 0-50

— mollis, p. bch. 0 9-10 Calla aetbiopica, p.

dozen 2 G- 4 0

Carnations, per
dozen blooms,
best American
various ... 2 0-80

— second size ... 16-20

— smaller, per

doz. bunches 0 0-12 0

— Malmaisons, p.

doz. blooms ... 8 0-12 0 Cattleyas, per doz.

blooms ... 8 0-10 0

C\c aii.tn, per Ju.-.

bunches ... 6 0-80 Cypripediums, per

dozen blooms.. 2 0-26 Eucnaris grandi

flora, per doz.

blooms ... 4 0-50

Freesias, per dozen

bunches ... 2 0- 8 0 Gardenias, per doz.

blooms 16-80

Gladiolus Colvilei

vars., per doz.

bunches ... 7 0-10 0 Gypsophila per dz.

bunches ... 8 0-50 Iris (Spanish), per

dozen bunches 8 0-60

Ixias... 4 0-60

Lapagerias,p. doz. 16-26
Liliuni auratum ... 2 0-80

— candidum .. 2 0-86

— longiflorum ... 2 6-40

— laucifolium, rubruai and

album 2 0- 2 0

Lily of the Valley,

p. dz. bunches 6 0-90

— extra quality ... 12 0-16 0 Marguerites, white,

p. dz. bunches 3 0-40 Marguerites, yellow, p. dz. bchs. 2 0-80

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Mignonette, per

dozen bunches Myosotis, per doz.

bunches Narcissus, per doz.

bunches

— poeticus orna-
tus

— Double varie-
ties

O don logics sum

crispum, per

dozen blooms 2 0-26 Pelargoniums,

show, per dcz.

bunches ... 6 0-60

— Zonal, double

scarlet 4 0-60

Roses, 12 blooms,

Niphetos ... 10-26

— Bridesmaid ... 2 0-60

— C. Testout ... 2 0 4 0

— General Jac-
quiminot ... 16-26

— K a i st: i i ii A.
Victoria ... 2 0-40

— C.Mermet ... 2 0-40

— Liberty ... 2 0-40

— Mad. Chatenay 8 0-60 Mrs. J. Laing 2 0-40

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Plants In Pou, Sc: Average Wholesale Prion (Ccntd.).

s.d. s.d. Hardy flower roots,

per dozen ... 0 9-20 Heliotropiums, p.

dozen 4 0-60

Hydrangeas, per

dozen 10 0-18 0

— paniculata, per
dozen 18 0-30 0

Kentia Belmore

ana, per dozen 18 0-30 0

— Fosteriana, dz. 18 0-30 0 Latania borbonica,

per dozen ... 13 0-18 0 L i I i u in longi

florum, per dz. 18 0-24 0

— lancifoliuin, p.
dozen 18 0-24 0

Lily of the Valley,

per dozen ... 18 0-30 0 Lobelia, per dozen 4 0-60 Marguerites, white,

per dozen ... 6 0-90 Mignonette,per dr. 6 0-10 0

Fruit: Average Wholesale Prices. s.d s.d Apples (Tasma

nlan), per box:

— Ribston Pippin 8 0-90

— Cox's Orange
Pippin 16 0-18 0

— Alexander ... 7 0-90

— Wellington ... 10 0-12 0

— Scarlet Non-
9 0 10 6

s.d. s.d. Pelargoniums.

per doz., Zonal 6 0-80

— show varieties 12 0-18 0

— Ivy-leaved ... 6 0-80

— Oak-leaved ... 3 0-60 Petunias, per doz.,

(double) ... 6 0-80

Rhodantbe, per

dozen 4 0-60

Roses, Ramblers,

each 5 0-30 0

— Hybrid perpetuals, per doz. 9 0-18 0

Saxifraga pyraiui

dalis, per doz. 15 0-18 0

Selaginella, p. doz. 4 0-60

Spiraea japonica, p.

dozen 6 0-90

Stocks (Intermediate), per dozen 6 0-80

Verbena, Miss Willmott, per dozen _. ... 6 0-10 0

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pareil ...

— Australian, per case:

— Esopus

— New York Pippins

— Monro Favorite 8 0-10 0

— Jonathan ... 8 0-12 0

— Ribston ... 9 0-10 0

— Cox's Orange

Pippin 16 0-20 0

— Wellington ... 10 0-11 0

— Rymer Pippin 9 0-11 0

— Alfriston

— Adams Pearmain

— French Crab...

— Nova Bcotian, per barrel:

— Fallawater ... 17 0-19 0

— Nonpareil ... 19 0-14 0

— Canadian, per barrel:

— Baldwin ... 20 0-21 0 Apricots (French),

per box ... 0 9-12

Bananas, bunch:

— No. 2 Canary. 6 0 —

— No. 1 7 6-80

— Extra 8 0-90

— Giants „ ... 10 0-12 0

— (Claret) _. 7 0-76

— Jamaica ... 6 0-66

— Loose, per dz. 0 9-13 Cranberries, case 8 9-90 Cherries (French),

* sieve 6 6-80

— (French), p.box 0 9-16 Dates (Tunis), doz.

boxes 4 0-43

Figs (Guernsey),

per dozen ... 2 0-80

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7 6-10 0 10-16

s.d. s.d. Grape Fruit, case 8 0-10 0 Grapes (Erglis1!,

new), per b ... 16-80

— Muscats (English, new), p. Id.

— (Cape), per box (small) ...

— (large) ... „

— (Almeria), per barrel 14 0-18 0

Gooseberries (English), j sieve ... Lemons:

— Messina, case Lychees, per box... Mangos (Jamaica),

per dozen ... 12 0-18 0 Melons (Guernsey) 2 0-36 Nuts, Almonds, per

bag ._ ... 45 0 —

— Brazils, new,

Eercwt. ... 60 0-67 0
arcelona, per
bag 80 0-32 0

— Cocoa nuts, 100 11 0-14 0 Oranges (Valencia),

per case ... 12 0-29 0

— Denia, p. case 12 0-22 0

— Jaffas per box 9 0-110

— Calif ornian

Navel, p. case 12 0-13 0

— P alermos, Blood:

— per box (100)...

— per box (200)... Peaches (English)

per dozen Pears (Cape), per box

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— cases

— (Australian), per box

Pineapples, each... Strawberries (English', per lb. ...

— seconds

— (French), per basket

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Vegetables : Average Wholesale Prices.

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s.d. s.d. Lettuce (French),

Cos, per dozen 8 0-40 Marrow (English) 2 0-80 Mint, per dz.bchs. 10-20 Mushrooms,per lb.

— broilers Mustardand Cress,

per dozen pun.

Onions (Egyptian),

per bag

— pickling, per bushel

— Spring, dz.bun. Parsley, 12bunches Peas (Guernsey),

per lb

rotates (Guernsey), per lb

— (Jersey), barrels, cwt. ... 18 0 —

— Teneriffe, cwt. 11 0-18 0 Radishes (Guernsey), dozen ...

— round, p. doz. Rhubarb (Natural) Salsafy, per dozen

bundles Seakale, per dozen

punnets Tomatos (English),

per lb

— second quality

— (Teneriffe), per bundle of four boxes 16 0-22 0

Turnips (French),

per bunch ... 0 6-08 Watercress, p. doz. 0 4-06

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Remarks.—Tasmanian and Australian Apples are arriving in large quantities, and their prices are easier except for the choicest samples. The demand for Strawberries this week has been good, notwithstanding increased supplies. There is also an improvement in the Grape trade. Asparagus, both home-grown and French, is considerably cheaper. Cherries in boxes and half-sieves from France are selling freely at reduced prices. E. H. R., C event Garden, Wednesday, Hay 27, 1908.

COVENT GARDEN FLOWER MARKET.

The warmer weather has materially improved trade. Th» sale of summer bedding plants has militated against the disposal of hardy flower roots, and many growers are left with stocks unsold. The warmer weather has caused flowers to develop rapidly. Liliums have been very cheap, but they may advance in value any day. This morning (Wednesday) their prices showed a slight rise, and I found on visiting some growers a few days since that the stocks of retarded bulbs were nearly exhausted. This week will nearly see the finish of the Narcissus season. Gladioli are very good, but it is only the varieties of Colvillei that are seen. One grower informs me that he has G. Brenchleyensis almost ready to cut. Irises are now prominent. I.germanica in some colours sells well if the flowers are cut early. The Spanish Irises also make better prices when tbey are cut before the blooms are well advanced. Iceland Poppies are very good, but some growers will not cut them until the flowers are open, and when the salesmen unpack them many of the flowers drop. English growers are sending some good double white Stocks. Stephanotis, Gardenias, and Callas are plentiful, but very few Eucharis have been seen for some time.

Pot Plants.

There is no great change to record in this department. The nurserymen are sending in large quantities of bedding

Etants, and tbey have been selling fairly well. Trade in ardy shrubs, climbers, ic, is not very good. Hydrangea paniculata is good, also H. Hortensia and the variety Thos. Hogg. H. Mariesii with flowers of a blue shade are in demand. Intermediate Stocks are nearly over. The spring crop of Mignonette is now good. Fewer nurserymen are growing Lobelia this season, and consequently its value is higher. Other subjects include Marguerites, Zonal and Ivy-leaved Pelargoniums, Spirxas, Roses, Ericas— including E. Cavendlshii, E, perspicua erecta, E. ventricosa magniflca, &c. Foliage plants are well supplied. During the past week the trade in them has been moderately good. A.H., Covent Garden, Wednesday, May 27, {90S.

THE WEATHER.

THE WEATHER IN WEST HERTS.

Week ending May 77*

Slight froits on two nights,—This was on the whole a cool week. On only one day did the temperature exceed the average, and on two nights the exposed thermometer fell slightly below the freezing-point. The ground is now at about a seasonable temperature, both at 1 and 2 feet deep. Small quantities of rain fell on three days, and hail on one of those days. With these exceptions there has been no rain for over 10 days, and consequently there has been no measurable percolation through either of the soil gauges for several days. The sun shone on an average for l'i hours a day. which is 20 minutes a day short of the mean duration for the time of year. The winds have been light, and the direction of the air currents variable. The mean amount of moisture in the air at 3 o'clock in the afternoon exceeded a seasonable quantity for that hour by 8 per cent. The first Rose to flower in toy garden in the open grouod was a variety of Rosa alpina which was out on the 30th, r r 10 days later than last year. £. A/., Berkhamstcd, May 27, 1908,

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

*.• Owing to unusual pressure on our space we have to hold over several society reports, inc'udmg those of the Royal National Tulip Society and the National Horticultural Society of France.

Names Of Fruits: W. G. D. Apple Pinner Seedling.

Names Of Plants: E.V.B. Tellima Heuchera— G. S. We do not undertake to name varieties of Tulips; the coloured bloom is probably Cottage Maid, the white one is probably Tulipa Didieri alba.—Alpine. 1, Saxifraga decipiens; 2, Aubrietia deltoidea purpurea; 3, Lithospermum purpureo-cceruleum; 1, Aubrietia tauricola; 5, Saxifraga muscoides; 6, Phlox nivalis.—J. iV. Maranta bicolor.—H. W. Zephyranthes carinata. — A. K., Dover. Crinum flaccidum.— G. D. Laurelia aromatica.

The Berlin Irrigation Meadows: Correspondent. These meadows, or Rieselfelder as they are called, are situated in the neighbourhood of Blankenburg, and several other small towns a few miles north of Berlin. They cover several thousand acres of land. The scheme comprises the sewage disposal of the town. The sewage is pumped into central lakes, from whence it is run out over the whole area through a network of shallow canals, thus forming an excellent dung material for enriching the soil. Owing to the level nature of the land, this work has been somewhat easy, but in some cases the water has to be led underground by pipes before it can find its own level, for the main object is to prevent a rapid flow of water and thus allow the nutritive materials to be absorbed to the best advantage. The system has been in natural operation for a long time, but it was only about 25 years ago that any real effort was made to cultivate the land. An experimental station was established and tests of all kinds carried out

under the supervision of competent officers, who spared no effort in the attempt to establish plants for all purposes. Fruits of all kinds, including Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Currants, and Gooseberries, and vegetables and flowers likely to find a ready market were all tried with conspicuous success. Even medicinal plants were given a trial, and the results obtained were sufficient to guarantee a source of income when grown on a larger scale. Reports were published yearly setting out the results of the various experiments, and it was soon realised that from an agricultural and horticultural point of view the fields were of exceptional value. The area is now largely sub-let to various tenants, who make use of it to the best advantage. The largest area is devoted to vegetables, which grow to quite an, unusual size, but are, according to popular opinion, somewhat lacking in flavour. This is to be explained by the nature of the soil, for the plants stand in almost pure dung, in many cases with their roots practically in water. Cut flowers form a large source of income, bulbous plants, Chrysanthemums, Dahlias, Pentstemons, Roses, and other plants, bloom well and find a ready sale. As stated in the note published in our issue for January 25, the fruit trees are mostly planted by the sides of the service roads, of which there are an enormous number. Apples particularly revel in the nourishment that they find here, and last year afforded a profit half as much again as in previous years. Corn of various kinds is also cultivated and the results are very successful, whilst Hemp has proved of exceptional value. It must not be thought that the whole of the area is in use. A large part of it is grass land) which is at present lying idle, but the development is progressing by leaps and bounds, and bids fair to double its present income in a few years. All reasonable precautions are taken against the spreading of disease and unpleasant smells. ^

To Destroy Ants: T. W. A simple plan is to pour boiling water on their nests, but probably the best remedy is a little bisulphide of carbon or vaporite inserted in the ground when the fumes will cause death to the ants. A preparation known as the Ballikinrain Ant Killer, is efficacious in destroying these pests in planthouses, but we have no experience of its value on an open lawn. It is Poisonous. Many thanks for the contribution to the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution.

Tulips: A. E., Birmingham. No Tulip mould has been found on your specimens. The injury is caused by a millipede (Julus pulchellus). It is not necessary to destroy the bulbs ; they should be thoroughly dusted with a mixture of flowers of sulphur and quicklime, using half as much of the latter as the former material.

Vine Leaves: E. S. We have been unable to find any parasitic fungus on your vine leaves. The Coleus leaves show two moulds, but neither of them is parasitic. The fact that the damage seems to be confined to the under side of the leaves suggests the attack of some animal pest, but none was seen. Perhaps close observation on the spot might reveal the cause of the mischief, but in the meantime we still have the matter under investigation to determine whether there may be a bacterial origin for the spotting.

Windmill Pumps: T. E. B, Write to a firm of horticultural sundriesmen and they win obtain them for you.

Woodlice: Constant Reader. These may be trapped by placing pieces of some vegetable such as Carrot, Turnip, Potato, &c, in their haunts. The baits may be poisoned by soaking them in Paris Green or white arsenic if desired. Steiner's " Vermin Paste" has also been found useful in destroying these pests. Mix the poison with barley meal or middlings and put tbe mixture on pieces of glass, wood or tin, and place in their haunts.

Communications Rf.ceived.—Frank Cooper. (Such announcements are not infrequent. We are unabl« to reproduce that you have sent us.)—W. F.—Erica—R. B.— Information—B. W. W.—W. G.—W. H. P.-Walter A.—

E. W. & Sons—J. C. & Sons—C. H. P.—]. G. D.—P. A —

W. R. D.—Cannon E.—M. L. L H. J.C.—E. T. B—

R. L. C—W. Bolting H.-E. F. H.—E. Y.—H. E.-A. D. —R. A. R.—A. G. T.—W. W. P.—W. W.—W. E. G.-« L. Gentil—8. B. & Co.—G. P.—G. D—J. T.—W. P. R--«

F. S.—D. H.—A. L.—C. F. F.—S. B.—G. B.—W. L.— R. B. W—D. C—W. H^-W. H. C—J. W.-G. S S.— W. U.—H. G. L.-F. B.

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Bamboo, the flowering of the 874

Belgian horticulture ... 362

BerHn Botanical Garden 301

Books, notices of—
Botanical Magazine... 3ft)
Enemies of the Rose 3R4
Pansies and Violets ... 365
Parks and Gardens of

London 861

Tros and Shrubs ... 363
Publications Received 37*2

Botanical Congress, a forthcoming 361»

Cardiff, sprint; flowers in Roalh Park 874

Carnations on the Riviera 871

Cherry, stook for grafting the doubleflowered Japanese ... 870

Cycad roots, nodules on 87C

Droitwich experimental garden 370

Economic plants, distribution of 872

Edinburgh Botanic Garden, notes from ... 869

Flowers, photographing 370

Franco-British Exhibition, forthcoming flower show at the ... 871

Java, a botanic garden in 870

La Mortolat notes from 365

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THE TRADESCANTS.

ONE of the glories of my few square yards of back garden is a fine patch of double purple Virginian Spider-wort, otherwise Tradescantia. It brings to mind two interesting personalities whose names, Ihough perhaps not writ large on the pages of general history, are of special interest to flower lovers. These are the two John Tradescants, father and son. Their names live for us in their beautiful American plant, which we call Tradescantia.

In the famous Ashmolean Museum at Oxford there is a half-length portrait of the younger Tradescant, whieh represents him leaning on a spade—the implement of his craft. For, as the inscription on their tomb in Lambeth Churchyard states, they were " both gardeners to the Rose and Lily Queen." This was Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I., and the two Tradescants were both Royal gardeners in the reign of this monarch. One or other of them also laid out grounds for the Duke of Buckingham. Both the Tradescants were much more than gardeners. The inscription on the tomb speaks of three John Tradescants, " grandsirc, father, son." The

last-mentioned died young, but the elder two, as the inscription goes on to say, " Lived till they had travelled Art and Nature through." They were, in fact, botanists, travellers and collectors. Their house became known in consequence as "Tradescant's Ark." Herrick, in his Hesperides, alludes to " Tradescant's curious shells." He also writes, taking strange liberties with the spelling of the name :—

"Thus John Tradeskin starves our greedy eyes By boxing up his new-found rarities."

One wonders if by any chance the name Trade skin is intended for a sort of pun on the eager collector of skins, &c. Quoting again from the inscription on the tomb, it was a choice collection "Of what is rare ki land, in sea, in air. . . A world of wonders in one closet shut." It is said, by the way, to have possessed two feathers of the "Phoenix tayle," a claw of the " bird Roc," and a "Dodad" from Mauritius. Izaak Walton quotes the Tradescant collection in justification of some of the mendacious tales with which he has been beguiling his readers. He has been discoursing, for example, of the river in Epirus which puts out a lighted torch and kindles one not lighted, of the Arabian river which dyes vermilion the wool of all the sheep that drink of it, of the merry river that dances at the sound of music and ceases when the music stops, and others. To assist his readers in swallowing these romances, he says:

"I know, we islanders are averse to the belief of these wonders; but, there be so many strange creatures to be now seen collected by John Tradescant, and others added by my friend Elias Ashmole, Esq., who now keeps them carefully and methodically at his house near to Lambeth, near Ixmdon, as may get some belief of some of the other wonder^ I mentioned."

As here indicated, the contents of the Tradescant ark came into the possession of Elias Ashmole, who added to it, and kept it in a sort of private museum in his house. He left it to the University of Oxford, where it is now housed. It is known as the Ashmolean Museum, though possibly the greater number of specimens were collected by the Tradescants.

The elder John Tradescant established the first Physic Garden, or, as we should now call it, Botanical Garden, in this country. The younger Tradescant travelled much, collecting specimens for this garden. In America he came across a pretty little blue flower with broad, grassy leaves. It is now known as the Virginian Spider-wort. It used to be called Ephemerum Virginianum. When Ruppius published, in 1718, his Flora Jeuensis Tie called it Tradescantia. Linnaeus adopted the name, and so it obtained the impress of authority.

According to Loudon the younger Tradescant also introduced the Lilac, Acacia and Occidental plant.

The inscription on the tomb ends appropriately, saying that the two Tradescants, "Transplanted now themselves sleep here;

and when Angels shall with their trumpets waken men And fire shall purge the world, these hence

shall rise And change this garden for a paradise."

-G. W. B.

THE BERLIN BOTANICAL GARDEN.

(Concluded from page 342.i

Considering that the furnishing of the garden was not begun until five years ago, the extent and condition of the collections generally is highly creditable to all concerned. The work of bringing the plants from the old garden at Schonberg was only finished at the end of last year.

In addition to the garden, there is also a large, imposing building containing the herbarium specimens, library, and the museum collections. The State horticultural school adjoining, but independent of the gardens, is another important institution, which takes full advantage of the teaching facilities provided in the Botanic Garden.

The staff consists of a director (Dr. Engler), an assistant director (Dr. Urban), and various botanists. The executive stall is headed by Mr. Ledien, recently appointed curator in succession to Mr. Perring, and previously curator of the Botanic Gnrd-n, Dresden. His principal assistant is Mr. Peters, whose special charge is the outdoor departments. There are two principal foremen, Mr. Behnick, late of Cambridge and Kew, and Mr. Vorwerk. Under these there are 23 sub-foremen, each of whom has charge of a department. These are all experienced gardeners, their ages ranging from 22 to 30, and form the permanent garden staff; they are all housed in the gardens, and their wa^es are about ^5 a month. Under the sub-foremen are the temporary garden assistants, who are engaged in spring for a period of about six months. This temporary help in summer is occasioned by the amount of outdoor work during hot weather, while in winter practically no work is possible owing to the frost. Their wages are iXs. or 19s. a week; from 25 to 30 are employed for the six months, about 10 of them being kept on in winter. Sunday duty is paid for at the ordinary rate. These men may be said to fill the place of journeyman gardeners under the English arrangement. There are no labourers. In addition to these, there are the improver gardeners, mostly youths of from 17 to 20. They are engaged for a year, but there is no hard-and-fast rule. They also perform Sunday duty at the same rate of pay.

The working hours for gardeners are from 6 to 6, with half an hour for breakfast, an hour for dinner, and half an hour for tea. In winter, the hours are from 7 to 4.30, with the same time for meals, excepting tea. The arrangements for providing food for the garden staff are quite exemplary, a spacious, well-furnished canteen, situated inside the garden, with a competent cook and a staff of servants, being provided by the authorities, and the food supplied is not only of good quality and well cooked and served, but it is also cheaper than it could be obtained elsewhere. This canteen is open all day, and food may be obtained in it until quite a late hour at night. Compared with the cost of living for gardeners employed near London, say, for instance, at Kew, the cost to the gardeners at Dahlem is about the same.

A mutual improvement society, no doubt a copy of that at Kew, holds fortnightly meetings in a room provided in the gardens. The meetings are well attended by the gardeners and the papers read are of a superior quality. There is also a reading room or library, but as the books are lent out to the gardeners the reading is generally done at home. The conditions of employment in Germany are so different from those in England that comparisons cannot easily be made. Comparing the hours, wages, and other cqnditions for gardeners employed in the Dahlem gardens with those of gardeners generally in (his part of Germany, the Dahlem conditions are not satisfactory. Wages paid in nurseries are higher. /. G. W.

ORCHID NOTES AND 6LEANIN63.

CATASETUM DISCOLOR WITH MALE AND FEMALE FLOWERS.

A Stodt inflorescence of Catasetum discolor, bearing three female flowers on one side and three male flowers on the other, is sent by Mr. G. Reynolds, gardener to Leopold de Rothschild, Esq., Gunnersbury Park, Acton, who states that another spike, bearing male flowers only, was also produced. On the inflorescence sent the male flowers are greenish, changing to yellow, the shallow galeate labellum being furnished with purplish filaments, arranged moustache-like on either side. The female flowers are about 2 inches in length from the tip of the upper sepal to the base of the deep pot-like fleshy labellum and about twice the size of the male blooms. Both are similar in colour, but in the female flowers the fringe on the sides is reduced to a slightly fringed serration on the margin. In both sets of flowers the labellum is uppermost. Since Catasetum discolor belongs to the section in which the rostellum of the male is not prolonged into antenna?, serving the purpose of bringing about the ejection of the pollinia when they are touched, the columns of both sexes closely resemble each other. In the female, however, it is much the stouter, the ovary also being proportionately thick.

Male and female flowers from the same spike of C. Bungerothii were illustrated in the issue of Gardeners' Chronicle for April 13. 1SS9, p. 461.

BELGIAN HORTICULTURE.

M. VUYLSTEKE'S ODOXTOGLOSSUMS.

In the report of the Ghent Show which was published in our issue for May 2 last, particulars were given of a remarkable exhibit of blotched Odontog!ossums shown by M. Vuylsteke, of Loochristy, near Ghent. We have now the opportunity of illustrating three of the novel. ties then exhibited, the illustrations being reproductions from photographs. The most remarkable is Odontoglossum maculatissimum (see fig. 164), which is a cross between O. maculatum and O. ardentissimum. The sepals of this fine hybrid are wholly of a bronzy-claret colour, the petals being heavily blotched with the same colour on the inner halves, and creamwhite on the outer. The broad iip is whitish with a large bronzy-red blotch and some pink veining. The plant exhibited had a spike bearing nine large flowers.

O. egregium var. Mme. Jules Hye de Crom is almost entirely of a magnificent shade of bronzy-claret, with white margins and tips to the segments. The attractiveness of the flower is due in a great measure to the brilliant sheen which pervades the surface of the colouring.

At fig. 166 is shown one of M. Vuylsteke's magnificent varieties of O. ardentissimum, named in this case after Mme. Vuylsteke. Tho?e who availed themselves of the opportunity of driving out to Loochristy and of inspecting for themselves M. Vulysteke's collections in cultivation, saw numerous varieties of O. ardentissimum resembling in more or less degree the variety which we illustrate, varying, however, in detail, in form, size, and colour.

The whole collection of Odontoglossums in M. Vuylsteke's establishment present such an appearance of high culture as could never be surpassed. The plants are cultivated in low span-roofed houses, and at the time of our visit the glass work of the houses was wholly covered with wooden lath shading, showing that the amount of sunlight in this part of Belgium is greater than in England at the same period, for there was no direct sunshine at the time. There are water tanks under the stages, generally the whole length of the house, as in many cases in England, and the ventilators are all covered with wasp and bee-proof wire netting, to exclude anything that would interfere with the pollination of plants it is wished to cross.

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Perfect cleanliness is apparent everywhere, and every plant appears as if it were a selected one rather than a member of a community equal in most respects to itself. In reply to a question, M. Vuylsteke, junr., assured us that no feeding is attempted, the word "feeding" in this case being applied to the giving of manures of any kind. We repeatedly saw specimens showing for bloom in their second year of growth, and were informed that the earliest time that M. Vuylsteke has yet been able to flower an Odontoglossum from seed is 18 months. It is difficult to convey a perfect idea of the strength and floriferousness of many of these Odontoglossum hybrids, but it may be stated that in one instance Odontoglossum Rolfeae bore 70 fine

flowers. In another case a variety of O.

ardentissimum had an inflorescence which bore 21 flowers. Another Odontoglossum hybrid, growing in a 5-inch pot, had three spikes bearing together 48 flowers, the pseudo-bulbs being quite remarkable for their size. It was extremely interesting to inspect the various crosses between Odontoglossum cirrhosum and O. ardentissimum. They varied from flowers having white narrow petals, very similar in form to those of Odontoglossum cirrhosum, to others which exhibited the best form of O. ardentissimum, and in colour from pure white to such blotched forms as the one illustrated at fig. 166. It is evident that many surprises are yet to come from Loochristy.

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THE ROSARY.

WORK IN THE ROSE GARDEN IN JUNE.

The inclement weather of April severely affected the Roses in the open garden, and especially those of the Tea and Noisette sections. The milder weather of May has enabled the bushes generally to recover from their injury, but should the shoots be badly damaged it will be advisable to prune them to low-seated buds and trust to a development of secondary growths, which can be aided by a surface mulching of manure and doses of liquid stimulants when growth has become active. The shoots on the standard Briars will now need attention. It will be apparent by the middle of this month which shoots are the best to retain, when three of the firmest and strongest growths near the top of the stock and at opposite angles should be selected, the remaining lower ones being cut clean away. Standard Briars that were budded but failed last year usually develop strong growths early in the second year. These will be quite a month in advance of the autumn-planted Briars and therefore valuable for early budding, using buds taken from well-ripened scions from plants grown

all wild growths from budded Roses should be completed by the end of June. If bushy heads are required, the maiden bud should not be allowed to flower, but should be pinched when 3 inches or 4 inches long. If the blooms are required for exhibition purposes, the best buds for selection are often found amongst the cluster of the first growth. In this case the first growth from the bud must be left alone and not stopped back. The Rose grower will, in seasons like this, have some difficulty in judging what to expect in the way of blooms by a certain date, and in order to be prepared for contingencies he should have reserve duplicate plants of those varieties he intends to exhibit. The largest growers usually depend on their maiden plants, but these are often only available for the later shows. For early exhibitions the best early kinds should be selected, and to obtain perfect blooms they must be disbudded quite three-fourths or even more, according to the variety. This is a matter entirely for the discretion of the grower. From the time the bud develops, the plant should be given plenty of liquid manure, diluted and alternated at intervals of about a week with the following ingredients in the proportion of 4 ozs. to 4 gallons of water, viz.: 2^ ozs. superphos

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under glass or from grafted plants that have been recently placed outside. Amongst varieties of the Teas and hybrid Teas of special merit are Lady Roberts, Souvenir de Pierre Notting, Mrs. Sharman Crawford, Liberty, Golden Gate, Frau Karl Druschki, and Kaiserin Augusta Victoria. The general budding season will be late this year, and will not be at its height much before July, as before that time iio great quantity of either scions or stocks will be available, but in all cases to secure success the bark should open freely and the scions slip out easily from the inner wood. If these conditions in stock and scion do not freely reciprocate, the operation had better be deferred until rain falls. If only a limited quantity of stocks has to be dealt with, I have found a copious soaking of water given to the roots and repeated, will, in a short time, cause the sap to rise, when the •work can be proceeded with. The work of securing the buds, the staking and elimination of

phate, J oz. sulphate of ammonia, J oz. nitrate of soda, and J oz. sulphate of potash. The above may be applied either in solution or as a dressing during moist weather and well raked in. If given as a solid it should be sprinkled about the surface of the ground, using equal proportions on each square yard. The above can be used until or before the flowers are expanded, after which it should be withheld. The protection of the blooms during stormy weather or from the scorching rays of the sun is necessary. Secure all plants of standard and dwarf Roses by staking and tieing the shoots; also guard against insect pests and mildew early in the season, as it is much more difficult to combat them later on. A solution of solt soap, quassia chips, or tobacco well steeped in hot water and applied during the evening and washed off next morning with clear water will usually be found effective remedies. The Dutch hoe is the best tool for destroying weeds, and this can be usefully em

ployed between the rows of seedling Briars and amongst all planted-out Roses. The use of the hoe aerates the ground and destroys all small weeds.

All Rose beds in the open should be examined for suckers springing from the roots or stems of plants, and they must be promptly removed.

Cuttings of Roses inserted in the open during October, unless planted due north, must be shaded from strong sunshine, for although a few of them ma}- be rooted, this precaution is necessary for the safety of the others, as until root action is established the solar heat will often cause the top growths to drobp and die.

Pot Roses of all descriptions are now best placed on ashes, or plunged outside, in order to give them sufficient rest to recuperate before being brought inside again. During the autumn abundant ventilation both day and night should be given to all Roses planted under glass, and where possible it is much the best to remove the lights altogether during the summer months to thoroughly mature the wood. Well ply the garden engine amongst the plants to thoroughly cleanse them. Roses on their own roots in pots plunged under frames and that have had an abundance of ventilation can now be well vaporised before removing the ashes altogether; any that require repotting should be seen to at once. The plants should be set out far apart on the bed to allow room for the deve'opment of the summer's growth, pinching back all straggling and long shoots to promote a bushy habit. The grafted plants will now be well established outside. Carefully examine for insect pests, stake and tie the plants, and stop them a few joints back, so as to make compact specimens. Weak and unripened wood should be removed or be well cut back from all Roses, as such shoots impair the energies of the plant. The early batch of forced Teas, Noisettes, and climbing Roses now out of doors should be kept dry at their roots for a period of about two months, after which they will show signs of fresh growth, and then the exhausted wood can be cut out. After their rest, if the plants are lightly pruned and top-dressed with some rich material and kept well syringed, a further crop of flowers may be expected during the autumn. As there is now plenty of well-ripened wood, advantage should be taken to put in some cuttings on a half-spent hot-bed according to instructions already given. If due care is taken in the matters of shading, watering, and selection of the cuttings, 90 per cent, of the shoots will form roots. /. D. G.

MARKET GARDENING.

NOTES FROM A "FRENCH" GARDEN.

The planting of Melons has been pushed forward as much as possible. Experienced growers have at this time plants always ready for planting out when required. When Carrots and Cauliflowers are doing well, and the grower thinks that they will be ready for market before June 20, he sows a batch of Melons at this time to replace them, instead of the customary crop of Endive or Celery.

The first batch of Melons is well forward. Some have fruits the size of two fists. The selection of the fruits is the most important detail in their culture. In the earliest batch growers are tempted to choose the first fruits which set, generally close to the main stem. This is only done in the early batches, however, for the further the fruit is from the main stem the better it will be in size and quality, though not so early as those taken closer to the stem We generally let two or three fruits grow to the size of a tennis ball, to be more certain of their shape before leaving the best only. We give them now a fair proportion of water always in the morning before 9.30. One three-gallon can of water is generally sufficient at one time. The Melons

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