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prominent Shawanee chiefs confronting the whites in the Scioto country, all except Tecumseh met death by treachery. He was killed in the battle of Thames, October 5, 1813, in the famous battle of General Harrison against the allied forces of the'British and Indians. “Tecumseh was a man of noble appearance and aperfectly symmetrical form. His carriage was erect and lofty——his motions quick—— his eyes penetrating——-his visage stern, with an air of hauteur in his countenance, which arose from an elevated pride of soul. It did not leave him even in death.” He is thus spoken of by one who knew him. Tecumseh was about forty-four years of age at the time of his death. During the war of 1812, he was made a brigadier-general in the army of Great Britain. It is doubtful if he joined the British, and \vore the red sash, and other badges of ofliee, because he was fond of imitating the whites; but he employed them, more probably, as a means of inspiring his followers with that respect and veneration for himself which was necessary in the work of expulsion, which he had undertaken. He was careful and deliberate in forming conclusions, and disinclined to war, except as a means of preserving the territory of his people, and avenging their wrongs.
On the occasion of the cowardly and unprovoked murder of Wawwilaway in 1803, the whites anticipating a renewal of hostilities, Tecumseh was induced to come to C-hillicothe and reassure the people of his peaceful intentions. This meeting was presided over by Governor Titfin. Colonel McDonald, who was an eye witness, says: “When Tecumseh arose to speak, as he cast his gaze over the vast multitude which the interesting occasion had brought together, he appeared one of the most dignified men I ever beheld. While this orator of nature was speaking, the vast crowd preserved the most. profound silence. From the confident manner in which he spoke of the intention of the Indians to adhere to the treaty of Greenville, and live in peace and friendship with their white brethren, he dispelled, as if by magic, the apprehensions of the whites—the settlers returned to their farms, and business generally was resumed throughout that region.” Drake says, “This incident is of value in forming an estimate of the character of this chief——it exhibits the confidence reposed in him by the white inhabitants of the frontier. The declaration of no other Indian could thus have dispelled the fears of a. border war,
which then pervaded the settlement.”
In palliation of the crime attributed to the murderers of \Va\vwilaway, it may be said that a white man—Captain lIerrod—had been mysteriously murdered, and that the crime was placed at the door of the Indians. This occurred near the turnpike bridge over Herrod’s creek, in Concord township. The condition of the body when found was such as to lead to the belief that he had been killed and scalped by the Indians. The thought which was uppermost in the minds of the great majority was that the Indians, who since 1795 had
faithfully observed the conditions of the Greenville treaty, had now recommeneed hostilities against the whites. But there were persons among the white people who firmly believed that Captain Herrod had not been a victim of Indian treachery, but that he had been killed by a jealous and unsuccessful rival for preferinent in the state militia. The case bafiied all eiforts toward a satisfactory solution, and remains amystcry to this day. But popular feeling ran high against the Indians, who strenuously denied any connection with the death of Captain Herrod. Wawwilaway was an old and faithful hunter for General Massie during his surveying tours, and an unwavering friend of the white man; hence his destruction in retaliation, without the slightest justifieation, very justly then, and ever after, rendered the perpetrators subject to condemnation.
Cornstalk sustains the name in history as the greatest chief among the Seioto Shawanees. He commanded the allied forces of the Shawanees, Senecas, Delawares and Wyandots at the celebrated battle of Point Pleasant. This has been characterized in history as “one of the most sanguinary and best fought battles in the annals of Indian
warfare in the west.” The battle raged with unabated fury from
early niorniiig until afternoon, succeeded by a less vigorous onslaught, continuing until night. Logan was there in command of the Mingoes
(known also as the Senecas , and Red Hawk and Ellinipseo were sub
ordinate coniiiianders. These were in the foremost of the fight,
encouraging the warriors both by word and example. Cornstalk’s voice was heard above the din of
_ conflict, calling to his men to “Be strong! Be strong!” It is said that he toiiialiawked one of his tribe who showed signs of cowardice.
’ This campaign is kiio\vii in history as Lord Dunmore s War, the decisive battle occurring on the tenth
Of O@'f0h@1‘, 1773, the Ilmliflils being defeated. It was followed by a treaty at Camp ‘Charlotte in which Logan refused to participate, althougli the Mingoes pledged Lord Dunniore to observe the peace. This was the occasion of the famous speech ‘of Logan, for generations familiar to the school children of every land. The Shawanees returned to their village on the west bank of the Scioto near the south line of Plikaway clfltlléltyi. This ,was headquarters of_ the coiifederated tribes ant was ea e Cornstalk s Town, or Old Chillicothe, on the present site of \Vestfall. Here Cornstalk called a council of the nation and censured them for not permitting him to make peace as he is’said to have desired on the eve of the disastrous battle “‘“’7l18f ” said he ' 7 7
chiefs followed the example of their lea.der. The appearance and oratory of Cornstalk when he appeared before Lord Dunmore, is thus described by Colonel \Vilson, one of the staff: “When he arose he was no wise confused or daunted, but spoke in a distinct and audible voice, without stammering or repetition, and with peculiar emphasis. His looks, while addressing Lord Dunmore, were truly grand and majestic, yet graceful and attractive. I have heard many celebrated orators, but never one whose powers of delivery surpassed those of Cornstalk on this occasion.”
After the treaty with Lord Dunmore in 1774, this magnanimous chief had been the steadfast friend of neutrality among the belligerent whites. Perhaps he had the sagaeity to perceive that the future of his race could not be altered by any issue of the controversy—-that the rapacity of the Europeans, and not of a party, was the proper object of patriotic dread. In tl1e spring of 1777, Cornstalk, accompanied by Red Hawk, went on a friendly visit to tl1e fort at Point Pleasant, communicated information as to the hostile disposition of the Ohio tribes, and expressed his sorrow that the Shawanee nation, except himself and his tribe, were determined to espouse the British cause, unless the Long Knives could prevent. them. Upon receiving this information, the commander of the garrison, Captain Arbuckle, seized upon Cornstalk and his companion as hostages for the peaceful conduct of his nation. ‘
During his captivity, Cornstalk held frequent conversations with the oflicers, and took pleasure in describing to them the geography of the West, then little known. One afternoon while engaged in drawing upon the floor a map of the Missouri territory, its water courses and mountains, a. halloo was heard from the forest, which Cornstalk recognized as the voice of his son Ellinipsco, a young warrior whose courage and address were almost as celebrated as his own. Ellinipsco entered the fort and embraced his father most affectionately, having been much concerned at his long absence. The day following the arrival of Ellinipsco, two men belonging to the fort crossed the KauaWha on a hunting expedition, and as they returned, some Indians in ambush killed one of them, near the mouth of the Kanawha. The survivor was rescued and the dead man brought to the fort. This atrocity so incensed the soldiers that they cried out, “Kill the red dogs in the fort.” They believed that the Indians who had killed their comrade had come with Cornstalk’s son on the preceding day. This the young man solemnly denied. In accordance with this hasty resolution, and without the semblance of evidence, they murdered Cornstalk, his son Ellinipsco, and companion and friend, Red Hawk.
Mr. Withers, an able writer on Indian affairs, speaks of him as follows: “Thus perished the mighty Cornstalk, sachem of the Shawanecs, and king of the northern confcderacv in 17 74——a chief remarkable for many great and good qualities. He was disposed to
others in diiferciit states, while children of all races have been iialllfld in honor of the great chieftaiu.
Iiogan was, accordin inately, a “savage of of dignity and pride,
;_~'ciicrous and great, brave and true.” He was disposed to be peaceful, and only took up arius against the \\'lliY@5
when driven to desperation by the annihilation of his faniil_\'. T110“ his veiigeancc, was swift and terrible. The inn-rder of his relatives 813 the mouth of Yellow creek May 24, 177-4, b_\' a pnrt_\' under (‘aptilill Greathouse, drove hiui to \'(‘l‘l,L‘Pi'll1(‘(‘- Pre\'iousl_\' he had eoiinselled peace, in which he was joined by flornstalk. But the atrocious aifaif at Yellow creek hastened a decision, and arra_vcd Logan and his followers agaiiist the expedition of I.ord Ihininorc, the results of which are spoken of in connectioii with Poriistalk. The innrder of Logan’S brother and others of his family was an event which led to a hoi'i'il)l0 Indian war, in which iiian_v innocent families were sacrifieetl to Satisfy the veiregeaiice of an incensed and injured people. Doubtless Logan had much to do with orgaiiizing and planning the attack upon
Point Pleasant, as he did in subsequent troubles with the Shawanees, until he again laid aside the toniahawk, and retired to peaceful life. All the kindness of his great heart had been turned to bitterness. He became melancholy and 1niserable—wandered about from tribe to tribe—solitary, dejected and broken-hearted. To drown his sorrow in his later years, he resorted to the stimulus of strong drink. His life closed with a tragedy. The memory of Logan is perpetuated by a monument under “Logan’s Elm” on the Boggs place in Pickaway colmty, formerly in Green township, Ross county, and by another at Auburn. But the most enduring of all is Mount Logan, just east of Chillicothe. This is a massive hill over six hundred feet high, where the great chieftain remained for a time as a refugee. Perhaps every. resident of Ross county is familiar with the traditional history of Mount Logan. “For magnanimity in war, and greatness of soul in peace, few, if any, in any nation, ever surpassed Logan.”
In connection with the Indians, it will be appropriate to mention some of the noted Indian fighters. Two characters in Ross county
"pioneer history whose deeds of daring are something out of the usual
order, even in those times of personal danger and sacrifice, are Daniel Boone and Simon Kenton. These daring fronticrsmen were often together, though not always, in their exploits against the savages. Of the two, perhaps Boone was the more aggressive and unrelenting; but as much of his history relates to border warfare in Kentucky and other fields foreign to our subject, wc must be content with a brief abstract of such portions of it as particularly relate to the territory under consideration.
Boone’s ancestral home was on the Yadkin river in North Carolina; but as early as 1769, he began his explorations in Kentucky and was captured by Indians on the 22nd of Dcceniber, in that year. He was kept a prisoner for seven days, when he eifccted his escape. Ile removed his family from their Xorth (‘arolina home to the embryo Boonesboro, in June, 1775. On the 10th of October following, they were attacked by a band of forty Indians, and his eldest son was killed. Soon after this Boone was employed by Governor Dunmore of Virginia to conduct a party of surveyors to the Falls of the Ohio. This embraccd a tour of eight hundred miles, through unbroken forest and endless dangers. Returning in safety, he was givcncommand of three garrisons in a campaign against the Shawanecs, holding his commission from Governor Dunmore. In 1775, he was engaged for a time in “blazing” roads through the wilderness from Virginia to the new settlements in Kentucky.
April 1, 1775, he began the erection of the fort at Booncsboro. It is said that his wife and daughter were the first white women who ever stood on the banks of the Kentucky rivcr. July 15, 1776, a band of Indians attacked the fort, and took his daughter a prisoner. Boone pursued them with eight men, killed two Indians and recovered his