front superior to that of the imperial palace at Jeilo. In the middle of the outermost hall was a chapel containing a large idol with curled hair, surrounded with smaller idols. On both sides were some smaller and less elaborate chapels; behind were two apartments for the emperor's use, opening upon a small pleasure-garden at the foot of a mountain, clothed with a beautiful variety of trees and shrubs. Behind this garden, and on the ascent of the mountain, was a chapel dedicated to the predecessor of the reigning emperor, who had been deified under the name of Gingosin.

"The visitors were next conducted across a square to another temple, of the size of an ordinary European church, supported on thirty pillars, or rather fifty-six, including those of the gallery which surrounded it. These pillars were, however, but nine feet high, and of wood, and, with the beams and cornices, were painted some red, some yellow. The most striking feature of this building, which was entirely empty within, was its bended roofs, four in number, one over the other, of which the lowest and largest jutted over the gallery. There were said to be not less than twenty-seven temples within the enclosure of this monastery.

"Up the hill, near a quarter of a mile distant, was a large bell, which Kiimpfer describes as rather superior in size to the smaller of the two great Moscow bells (which he had seen), rough, ill-cast and ill-shaped. It was struck on the outside by a large wooden stick. The prior who, with a number of the monks, received and entertained the Dutch visitors, was an old gentleman, of an agreeable countenance and good complexion, clad in a violet or dark purple-colored gown, with an alms bag in his hand richly embroidered with gold.

"The largest and most remarkable of the temples seen at Miako, was that ealled Daibods, on the road to Fusimi. It was enclosed by a high wall of free-stone, the front blocks being near twelve feet square. A stone stairease of eight steps led up to the gateway, on either side of which stood a gigantic image, near twenty-four feet high, with the face of a lion, but otherwise well-proportioned, black, or of a dark purple, almost naked, and placed on a pedestal six feet high. That on the left had the mouth open and one of the hands stretched o it. The opposite one had the mouth shut and the hand close to tha body. They were said to be emblems of the two first TEMPLES AT MIAKO. 381 and chief principles of nature, the active and passive, the giving and taking, the opening and shutting, generation and corruption. Within the gateway were sixteen stone pillars on each side for lamps, a water basin, &c.; and on the inside of the enclosing wall was a spacious walk or gallery, open towards the interior space, but covered with a roof which was supported by two rows of pillars, about eighteen feet high and twelve feet distant from each other.

"Directly opposite the entrance, in the middle of the court, stood the temple, much the loftiest structure which Kampfer had seen in Japan, with a double roof supported by ninety-four immense wooden pillars, of at least nine feet diameter, some of them of a single piece, but others of several trunks put together as in the case of the masts of our large ships, and all painted red." Within, the floor was paved with square flags of free-stone, —a thing not seen elsewhere. There were many small, narrow doors running up to the first roof, but the interior, on account of its great height, the whole up to the second roof forming but one room, was very badly lighted. Nothing was to be seen within except an immense idol, sitting (not after the Japanese, but after the Indian manner, with the legs crossed before it) on a terete flower, supported by another flower, of which the leaves were turned upwards, the two being raised about twelve feet from the floor. The idol which was gilt all over, had long ears, curled hair, a crown on the head, which appeared through the window over the first roof, with a large spot not gilt on the forehead. The shoulders, so broad as to reach from one pillar to another, a distance of thirty feet, were naked. The breast and body were covered with a loose piece of drapery. It held the right hand up, the left rested edgewise on the belly. The Quanwon temple was a structure very long in proportion to its breadth. In the midst was a gigantic image of Quanwon, with thirty-six arms. Sixteen black images, bigger than life, stood round it, and on each side two rows of gilt idols with twenty arms each. On either side of the temple, running from end to end, were ten platforms rising like steps one behind the other, on each of which stood fifty images of Quanwon, as large as life,—a thousand in all, each on its separate pedestal, so arranged as to stand in rows of five, one behind the other, and all visible at the same time, each with its twenty hands. On the hands and heads of all these are placed smaller idols, to the number of forty or more; so that the whole number, thirty-three thousand three hundred and thirty-three, according to the estimate of the Japanese, does not appear exag gerated.

Klaproth* gives some curious details as to these temples, derived from a Japanese Guide Book, such as is sold to visitants. The dimensions of the temple and of the image of Daibods, or the great Buddha, are given with great minuteness. The body is seventyseven feet five and one fourth inches high (Rhineland measure), and the entire statue with the lotus, eighty-nine feet eight and three fourths inches. The head of the colossus protrudes through the roof of the saloon.t At a little distance is a chapel called Mimitsuka, or "tomb of ears," in which are buried the ears and noses of the Coreans who fell in the war carried on against them by Taiko-Sama, who had them salted and conveyed to Japan. The grand portico of the external wall of the temple is ealled Ni-wo-mon, "gate of the two kings." On entering this vast portico, which is eighty-three and one half feet high, on each side appears a colossal figure twentytwo feet in height, representing the two celestial kings, Awoon and Jugo, the usual porters at the Buddhist temples. Another edifice placed before the apartment of the great Buddha, contains the largest bell known in the world. It is seventeen feet two and one half inches high, and weighs one million seven hundred thousand Japanese pounds (katties), equal to two millions sixty-six thousand pounds English. Its weight is consequently five times greater than the great bell at Moscow. If this is the same bell described by Kiimpfer, here is a remarkable discrepancy.

* Annali des Empereurs du Japan, p. 405, note, and in the Asiatic Journal for Sept. 1831.

'f The history of this image, derived from the same source, is given in a note on p. 150. The roof of the temple is supported on ninety-two columns, each upwards of six feet in diameter. CHAPTER XXXVIII. FURTHER DECLINE OF THE DUTCH TRADE. DEGRADATION OF TnE JAPANESW

COINS. —THE DUTCH THREATEN TO WITHDRAW FROM JAPAN. RESTRICTIONS ON THE CHINESE TRADE. TROBABLE CAUSE OF THE POLICY ADOPTED BY THE JAPANESE. DRAIN OF THE PRECIOUS METALS. NEW BASIS UPON WHICH FUTURE TRADE MUST BE ARRANGED. Notwithstanding the lamentations uttered by Kiimpfer in the name of the Dutch factors, the trade to Japan had by no means in his time reached its lowest level, and it was subjected soon after his departure to new and more stringent limitations. In the year 1696 appeared a new kind of kobang. The old kobang was twenty carats eight and a half, and even ten, grains fine; that is, supposing it divided into twenty-four parts, twenty parts and a half were fine gold.* The new kobang was thirteen carats six or seven grains fine, containing, consequently, only two thirds as much gold as the old one, and yet the Dutch were required to receive it at the same rate of sixty-eight mas of silver. The old kobang had returned on the coast of Coromandel a profit of twenty-five per cent., the new produced a loss of fifteen or sixteen per cent.; but some of the old kobangs being still paid over at the same rate as the new, some profits continued to be derived from the gold, till, in 1710, the Japanese made a still more serious change in their coin, by reducing the weight of the kobang nearly one half, from forty-seven kanderins (two hundred and seventy-four grains) to twenty-five kanderins (one hundred and forty-six grains), which, as the Dutch were still obliged to receive these new kobangs at the rate of sixty-eight mas, caused a loss of from thirty-four to * In one thousand parts, eight hundred and fifty-four were pure gold. The pure metal in our American coins is nine hundred parts in one thousand; or, in the old phraseology, they are twenty-one carats and twehe graini fine.

thirty-six per cent. From this time the old kobangs passed as double kobangs, being reckoned at twice their former weight. The kobangs of the coinage of 1730 were about five per cent, better than the preceding ones; but the Dutch trade continued rapidly to decline, especially after the exportation of copper was limited, in 1714, to fifteen thousand chests, or piculs, and, in 1721, to ten thousand piculs annually. From this time, two ships sufficed for the Dutch trade. For thirty years previous to 1743, the annual gross profits on the Japanese trade had amounted to five hundred thousand florins (two hundred thousand dollars), and some years to six hundred thousand (two hundred and forty thousand dollars); but in 1743 they sunk below two hundred thousand florins (eighty thousand dollars), which was the annual cost of maintaining the establishment at Desima. Upon this occasion, a " Memoir on the Trade of Japan, and the Causes of its Decline," was drawn up by Imhoff, at that time governor-general at Batavia, which affords information on the change in the value of the kobang, and other matters relating to the Dutch trade to Japan, not elsewhere to be found.* It is apparent from this memoir that the trade was not managed with the sagacity which might have been expected from private merchants. The cargoes were ill assorted, and did not correspond to the requisitions of the Japanese. They, on the other hand, had repeatedly offered several new articles of export, which the Company had declined, because, in the old routine of their trade, no profitable market appeared for these articles at the prices asked for them. The Dutch attempted to frighten the Japanese, by threatening to close their factory altogether, but this did not produce much effect, and, since the date of Imhoff's memoir, the factory appears not to have done much more than to pay its expenses. That the Japanese were not very anxious for foreign trade, appears by their having restricted the Chinese, previous to 1740, to twenty junks annually, and at a subsequent period to ten junks. * Having been discovered by Sir Stamford Raffles among the public documents at Batavia, he published an abstract of it in the appendix B to hia History vf Java.

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