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and cider.' This is the interpretation of Ruoeus and Dr. Trapp; though it is rather difficult to determine precisely what is meant by fermento. The other liquor was expressed from acid berries and fruits.
381. Septem .... trioni: separated by tmesis. Seven stars near the north pole receive this name collectively.
385. Tribulique: Geo. i. 153.—Pabula Iceta: the wool of sheep, fed on poor pasture, is still observed to be of finer staple than that of the same breed on rich pasture.
391. Munere: 'by the tempting appearance;' peregrina munera, 'foreign ornaments,' Propert. i. El. ii. 4. Voss.
392. Luna: alluding to a fable preserved by Macrobius, v. 22, of Selene or Luna following Pan transformed into a white ram; as Europa did Jupiter, transformed into a white bull.
394. M cut lactis amor: 'but whoever turns his attention to milk.'
395. Salsas .... herbas; 'marsh herbs.'
405. Catulos: these, Martyn thinks, were a breed of small hounds.' —Molossum: and this,' a mastiff.'
406. Seropingui:'nutritious whey,' which Columella, vii. 12, speaks of as dog's food.
408. Iberos: in Spain, cattle-stealing was said to be frequent; the poet therefore gives the name of Spaniards to all thieves of this description.
409. Onagros: no other authority occurs for believing that the wild ass was ever found in Italy. As they are animals of great speed, they are perhaps introduced merely to express the excellence of the dogs. Voss.
415. Galbaneo: Galbanum is a gum issuing from the root of a ferulaceous plant, growing in Syria and Arabia. Its brownish yellow colour was afterwards imitated in the Roman cloth, and became fashionable. Galbanos habet mores. Mart. i. 97-9.—Grams: 'offensive to the smell;' or,' dangerous.'—Chelydros: Geo. ii. 214.
416. Sa>pe : the poet now proceeds to treat on the evils to which domestic animals are subject: 1st. On serpents, verse 414: 2d. Cutaneous eruptions, and their remedies, verse 440: 3d. Fever, verse 457: 4th. An epidemical destructive malady, which once raged near the Alps, verse 474.
420. Fovit hurnum: 'keeps close to the ground.' Castra fovere, Mix. ix. 57.—Cape saxa: the rapidity of the verse expresses the instant necessity for exertion.
425. Anguis: a vivid description is here given of the Chersydrus, an amphibious serpent, so called from xiooos, ' earth,' and Vswq, 'water.' M.
428. Rumpuntur: for rumpunt se.
436. Dorso nemoris: 'near the margin of a wood.'
439. Micat ore: poetically for ora micant. This verse is repeated, iEn. ii. 475.
448. Tristi: 'bitter.' Geo. i. 75.—Amurcd: 'the scum of oil..'
449. Spumas .... argenti: 'litharge;' a metalline substance, formed from the spume of lead, used in purifying silver.
450. Iddas pices: trees affording pitch abounded on Mount Ida. Fix arida, pitch ; pix liquida, tar: the latter probably is meant.—Pingues unguine ceras: wax softened with grease to make an ointment.
451. Scillam: 'the squill:' the large bulbous root of a plant which grows on the sea-shore.
452. Prasens fortuna laliorum: 'ready remedy for their sufferings or malady.' Voss.
454. Tegendo.- in a passive signification; as, habendo. Geo. ii. 350. 462. Getamm: the Getre or Dacians dwelt near the Danube. M.
467. Sera nocti: Fierius says it is serA node, in the ancient manuscripts, in which sense we must consider it as used for the ablative of time.
468. Culpam .... compesce .- that evil, which would contaminate the flock, you must prevent, by killing the sheep.
470. Turbo .... pestes: 'the whirlwind, which brings on the storm and rushes on the main, is not so frequent as the evils which beset cattle are numerous.'
471. Pestes: under this term other dangers are included besides those arising from disease.
472. JEstiva : pascua, understood. Verses 322-3.
473. Spcmque gregemque: poetically, for 'the lambs with their mothers.
475. Iapydis: some read Iapygis, but Iapydis is certainly the true reading; for Iapydia was in the Venetian territory, through which the river Timavus flows. M.
476. Pdst tanto: 'after the lapse of so long a period since the calamity befell this country [the neighbourhood of Saltzburg, part of Bavaria and Friuli], whoever sees its present state of desertion may judge.'—Regno,: possessions formerly flourishing. Eel. i. 70.
478. Morbo cmli: 'by a corruption in the air.'
479. Tempestas: 'pestilence.'—Autumni .... eestu:' and the air, inflamed, raged with all the heat of autumn.'
481. Tabo: 'poisonous miasmata.' Tabum is a diminutive, from tabes; derived from Tiixw, Doric, for Tijxoj. D.
482. Nee via .... simplex: 'the mortal symptoms were not always the same,' being complicated with a variety of distressing circumstances. There seems no necessity for departing from the ordinary signification of simplex, as almost all the commentators, from Servius, have done. Geo. ii. 73.
483 Sitis: 'a parching heat contracted their miserable limbs.' 485. Trahebat: 'dissolved all their bones.'
487. Lanea dum .... infula vittA,: 1 while the priest is binding the woollen bandage about its head with a white ribbon.' The infula were broad woollen bandages tied about the head of the victim, and that of the priest also, by ribbons, vitta. Adam's Antiq.
490. Inde: from the victim.
498. Studiorum atque immemor herba: 'forgetful of the race, as well as of his feeding.' Voss.
500. Crebra: put adverbially.—Incertus: 'bursting into sweats by fits.'—Morituris frigidus: 'which became cold when the animals were near dying.'
508. Oosessas: ' ulcerated.' H.
511. Mox: in a more advanced stage of the disease, administering wine was found injurious. Dryden.
512. Morte sub agrA: 'on the approach of death.' Sub often expresses proximity of place or time. Geo. i. 211. Voss.
513. Errorem: 'fury, derangement,' Eel. viii. 41. Deprecating evils from ourselves on our enemies is frequent in ancient writers. Hor. Carm. i. 21. 13. Christianity inculcates more elevated sentiments.
517. Extremos .... aratra: the pause in the first verse; the spondees of which the second is composed expressing the melancholy unyoking and departure of the surviving oz, and the image of the abandoned plough in the third, give great effect to this beautiful passage.
521. Animum: the surviving oz is represented as thus inconsolable.
522. Electro: the Greeks and Romans gave the name lUtxro—, electrum, to two substances; one, the fossil now called amber, Eel. viii. 54; the other, a metal compounded of four parts in five of gold, and one of silver, JEn. viii. 402. This mixed metal was anciently in high esteem, but at present is wholly out of use. The comparison in the text may be with either of these substances. Servius says it is with the metal; Cerda and Voss, with amber.
525-530. These six lines were so much the subject of the elder Scaliger's admiration, that he says he would prefer being their author to the favour of the greatest sovereign.
527. Repdsta: 'placed in succession;' iterum iterumque plena reponunt pocula. Geo. iv. 378.
529. Exercita cursu: poetically, for 'ever flowing.'
532. Quasitas: 'sought in vain.'—Uris imparwus: 'buffaloes ill matched.'
533. Donaria: properly,the repository of votive offerings to thegods; here used, as occasionally pulvinaria, for the temples themselves.
534. Rimantur: the slow progress of the work is imitated by the succession of spondees.
536. Contents,: 'strained.'
537. Insidias explorat: 'seeks where he can lie in ambush:' in two MSS. insidians.
539. Cura domat: 'whom the disease oppresses.'
540. Interque canes: the circumstance of deer wandering among dogs, proves that the pestilence had deprived the one of their fear, the other of their ferocity.
541. JYatantfim: of fish; used substantively, as volitans, verse 147.
542. Naufraga corpora: on the authority of Aristotle, H. Anim. viii. 19, 20, it has been denied that any epidemic malady ever attacks fish: posterior observation has given sufficient reason to doubt this opinion.
545. Vipera: it must be admitted that the solitary life and small number of vipers may be supposed to secure them from epidemics. 54ft. Non (equus: 'is fatal.'
549. Quctsitteqiue nocent artes: 'and the powers of medicine failed.' 556. Jamque catervatim dot: sc. Tisiphone.
559. Viscera: here expresses the flesh of the animal; as, Tergora diripiunt costis, et viscera nudant, ^En. i. 211.
560. Vincere flamma: horrea vincatj Geo. ii. 518. So general was the mortality, that it was found impossible either to consume by fire the carcasses, or to float them away in the rivers.
564. Papula: 'pustules, or carbuncles.'
566. Sacer ignis: a species of general gangrene.
GEORGICS. BOOK IV.
This book is devoted to the history and management of bees, the most sagacious of insects. As the poet proceeds directly to his subject, no invocation is prefixed, as in the preceding books. For a very interesting account of the internal economy of bees, derived from a series of observations the most curious and satisfactory, the student is referred to the work of the ingenious and persevering F. Hliber on this subject.
1. Protenus: 'next, further,' Eel. i. 13, note.—Aerii: an opinion was entertained by the ancients that honey was derived from the dews ofheaven.
3. Admiranda: 'I shall exhibit views of these little insects deserving your admiration.'
6. Quern .- for aliquem.
7. Numina lava sinunt: sc. hcec dicere cum gloria; 'if favouring divinities permitlava is here interpreted in this sense by Servius; but by A. Gellius, in the opposite. Omens from the left were certainly deemed favourable by the Romans. Intonuit laviim is taken as a good omen, iEn. ii. 693, and ix. 031. Thus Dryden appears to have understood these two lines:
Slight is the subject, but the praise not small,
13. Picti .... terga: a Grfflcism. 'Lizards with party-coloured backs.'
14. Pinguibus a stabulis: 'from the rich hives.'—Meropes: this bird, named also the apiaster, or bee-eater, rarely, if ever, visits the northern regions of Europe. A flight of them is said to have been seen in 1793, near Mattishall, in Norfolk. An African bird of this species guides the Hottentot to the honey.
15. Promt: see Ovid, Met. vi. 669; or Classical Dictionary. Some species of swallows have red marks, it is said, on the breast.
21. Reges -- Virgil is mistaken in. the sex of the sovereign of the bee s, which is now known to be a female. See Huber.
22. Vere suo.- the bees swarm in Italy from about the 11th of May till the longest day. Colum. ix. 14.
31. Thymbra: 'savory,' which resembles thyme in smell.
37. Neque .... nequidquam: 'not without design.'
38. Cerd: this is properly the material of which the honeycombs are formed. The gluten, verse 40, by which they are held together, is a different substance, called the propolis; this substance Virgil Iras still in view, when using the terms cera, fuco, fioribus, and gluten. Fucus was a species of sea-weed anciently used in dyeing, and also in colouring the human skin: hence the term was applied to every species of factitious colour. Byfloribus, the poet intimates that from their juices the bee extracts the gluten, which is of a brown hue. Fuco etflorilius, as vateris et auro.
43T FovSre larem: 'lived;' remained willingly and constantly. Geo. iii. 420. Castra fovere, 2En. ix. 57.
45. Tu tamen: careful as the bees themselves are to secure their abode, yet do not you neglect to give them additional protection.
47. Rubentes .... cancros: crab-shells burnt were employed for some medicinal purposes; in the fire they become red: the smell of them when burning was thought injurious to bees.
50. Offensa resultat imago: 'where the sound is repelled;' 'where there is an echo.' Cujus recinet jocosa nojnen imago. Hor. Carm. i. 12.
54. Purpureas.- any bright colour was expressed by purpureas.— Mrtunt: poetically, for 'collect from.'
5M. hinwAsLm: 'clear.' Geo. i. 404.
62. Jussos .... sopores: 'the high-flavoured herbs recommended.'
63. Trita mdisphylla: 'bruised balm.' The hive destined to receive the bees is still frequently rubbed with this plant.—Cerinthce: 'honeywort.' M.—Ignobile gramen: 'a common plant.'
64. Matris: of Cybele, mother of the gods. At her sacrifices, cymbals were always used.
65. Medicatis sedibus: 'the places thus prepared with fragrant herbs.'
69. Trepidardia: 'beating with ardour for the conflict.'
75. Pretoria: metaphorically, for the royal cell; the queen's abode.
77. Ergo: this particle is sometimes employed when a subject, which has been interrupted, is again taken up: here it connects with Sin .... exierint, verse 67.
82. Ipsi.- the leaders.
85. Aut hos: the repetition in the beginning of a line of the words which concluded the preceding is termed an anadiplosis; in the present instance, it gives additional energy.
87. Pulveris exigui: the bees mistake this, probably, for rain, to which they have a great dislike.
89. JVe prodigus obsit: 'lest, prodigal of the honey, he do injury.'
91. Alter erit: the poet here begins to describe the various kinds of bees; and, in the first place, says there are two kinds of kings j 'the one will be bright with spots glittering like gold.'—SqueUentibus: Servius derives this from squamis, and explains it by splendentibus.
97. Terram: sc. in terram, propter pulverem; or, in reality, 'spit out dirt.'
103. Incerta .... ludunt: 'fly about, and sport in the air, apparently without object.'
104. Contemnuntque: 'disdain to finish their labours.'—Frigida 'cooled,' because abandoned by the bees.
111. Priapi: this divinity, worshipped at Lampsacus on the Hellespont, was the guardian of gardens. In them, and under his protection, the poet recommends that bees should be placed. The advantage to bees of gardens leads the poet incidentally to speak of them, but in terms so pleasing, as must occasion regret that he did not enlarge on this subject.
112. Ipse .... cui talia curat: 'let the man, who has the care of bees, himself bring thyme and pines from the high mountains, and set them out extensively around the hives.'
118. Pingues: 'rich, productive.' Geo. i. 192.
119. Biferique rosaria Pmsti: the roses which grew near Paestum, in Lucania, were said to blow twice in the yea? in spring and in autumn.
120. Intyba: 'endive.'
121. Apia: 'celery.'
122. Sera: used adverbially for serd.
125. (EbaluB .... arcis: by 1 the towers of the (Ebalian citadel,' the poet means Tarentum: for CEbalia is Laconia, from whence a colony, under the guidance of Phalantus, came to Calabria, and augmented Tarentum. M. The Tarentine territory, watered by the Galeesus, was remarkable for fertility.
127. Corycium: Corycus, Kaqvxoi;, was the name of a hill on which saffron was cultivated, and also of a town in Cilicia. Pompey had transported into Calabria, A. U. C. 687, part of its inhabitants; of whom this person was, perhaps, one.—Relicti: 'which had been despised and abandoned.'
128. Juvencis: 'for the labour of oxen;' i. e. for corn.