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pounded at Hinckley 15 miles northeast of the city, and in part from surface streams impounded in several reservoirs just south of the city. The original supply was installed in 1850 and consisted of a reservoir supplied by the socalled Graftenberg springs, located in the hills south of the city. As the population increased additional reservoirs were constructed and surface streams impounded forming a system of storage and distributing reservoirs south of L-tica, these reservoirs constituting what is known as the southern supply. About 1907 the supply from the West Canada creek was first introduced into the city and in 1915 the present barge canal reservoir at Hinckley was completed and it is from this reservoir that the West Canada creek supply is now taken.
Approximately 100 per cent of the population in Utica is supplied by the water company as well as the villages of New Hartford. Oriskany, Whitesboro, the total population being served can thus be estimated at approximately 100,000. The present water consumption is approximately 13,000,000 gallons daily of which 10,000,000 is derived from the northern supply and the remainder from the southern supply.1 Large amounts of water are used by the industries and railroads. There are approximately 200 miles of water mains ranging in size from 4 to 24 inches in diameter. Of the 18,000 service taps practically all are metered. The water is distributed by gravity giving pressure in the mains ranging from 50 to 100 pounds per square inch. The various mills in the city have in nearly all cases, auxiliary fire supplies, crossconnected with the city mains by means of single or double check valves. Steps are now under way to provide all such cross-connections with double check valves installed in properly constructed manholes for inspection and testing purposes.
The intake at the Hinckley reservoir consists of a gate house located about midway of the dam, the point of intake being about 25 feet below the water surface. The reservoir is approximately 4 miles long and % mile wide at the dam. Its capacity is estimated at 25,000,000,000 gallons. From this intake the water flows by gravity through about 10 miles of 24-inch mains to a diverting reservoir located in the town of Marcy about 6 miles north of Utica. From this reservoir water is diverted to 2 distributing reservoirs, one known as the Marcy reservoir, located in the town of Marcy and the other, known as the Deerfield reservoir, located in the town of Deerfield. The Marcy reservoir is an open reservoir formed by earthen embankments paved on the inner slopes and with a capacity of 15,000.000 gallons. From this reservoir a 24 inch main leads to the northwestern section of the city-s distribution mains. The Deerfield reservoir is of similar construction to that of the Marcy reservoir and has a storage capacity of approximately 106,000,000 gallons. From this reservoir a 20-inch main leads into the city distribution system at the foot of Genesee street.
In case of the southern supply the intake tributary to reservoir No. 2 is located on Starch Factory creek about 1% miles above the reservoir. From this intake the water is conveyed to the reservoir by gravity through a cast-iron pipe line. Formerly a larger storage reservoir existed just below this intake but several years ago the dam gave way and has never been rebuilt. Reservoir No. 1 is fed directly by the stream tributary to it and from the reservoir the water is distributed to the New Hartford district and to a small portion of Utica. A third stream is impounded in reservoir No. 4 and the water from this reservoir is distributed by gravity to Utica. The water from No. 2 and No. 5 is pumped when needed into No. 4. Ice cutting is carried on under the supervision of the water company on reservoir No. 4. The respective reservoirs on the southern watershed have capacities as follows:
1 25,000,000 gallons.
2 27,000,000 gallons.
4 282,000.000 gallons.
5 183,000.000 gallons.
On the New Hartford distribution system is a stand-pipe with a capacity of 50,000 gallons and on the Oriskany distribution system is a stand-pipe with 250.000 gallons rapacity. Another supply has been obtained in the past from a small intake dam on Reels creek not far from the Deerfield reservoir. This supply, however, is not now used.
The various supplies admitted to the distribution system are nil created with liquid chlorine. This company was one of the enrlicst water companies to adopt chlorine or its compounds for the sterilization of the supply. In 1906 hypochlorite plants were installed for the sterilization of the supply from the West Canada creek. In 1911 this hypochlorite treatment wa* replaced by an electrolytic system for tlie production of free chlorine from brine solution. In 1914 apparatus for applying liquid chlorine was installed. The apparatus originally installed for sterilizing the supply from tlve Marcy reservoir consisted of an Electro-Bleaching Gas Company solution feed apparatus. It was claimed, however, that this apparatus proved somewhat unsatisfactory and its use was discontinued. At the time of the inspection the chlorine was being applied directly into the main from the reservoir against about 15 pounds pressure. The amount applied was being regulated by hand operated valves and checked by weighings of the chlorine cylinder on scales. It is stated that a new automatic control apparatus is to be instnlled shortly. At the Deerfield reservoir an automatically controlled Wallace & Tiernan chlorinator wns in use and at the time of the inspection was apparently working satisfactorily. In the case of the water from the soutliern watershed it has been found necessary to install an apparatus especially designed by Wallace & Tiernan for this purpose. This apparatus consists essentially of a large concrete solution tank in which a chlorine solution of certain strength is prepared by the direct discharge of chlorine gas into the tank. From this tank the solution flows through control valves and thence through a water injector into the discharge mains from reservoir No. 4. In the case of the New Hartford supply the chlorine solution is pumped by means of a small plunger pump into the discharge main against the pressure of about D0 pounds per square inch. At the time of the inspection this pump Wp.s out of service owing to a slight disarrangement of the electric motor driving it.
Regular analyses of the various supplies are made by Professor Hodges and complete records of the results of operation are kept.
The watershed of West Canada creek above the Hinckley dam has an area of about 400 square miles. This area consists of foot hills of the lower Achrondacks, covered in the main with second growth timber and very sparsely inhabited. It is estimated that there are some 1,500 people upon the -watershed or about 4 per square mile. The soil is largely sand and gravel, and in some portions rather extensive swamps occur. This watershed, as well aithose for the southern supply, is protected by rules and regulations enacted by this Department in 1907. Under these rules the water company is required to maintain a monthly patrol of the watersheds and to maintain sanitary eonditions thereon in accordance with the stipulations of the rules. A resident caretaker is employed by the water company to patrol the watershed and abate violation of the rides. At the time of the inspection it was evident that the caretaker of West Canada creek has been somewhat negligent in looking after both the privies provided with removable containers and tli,-. watertight cesspools located within limiting distances of the stream or its tributaries. This negligence was called to the attention of Professor Hodge-* and steps were immediately taken to remedy conditions. On the whole, however, conditions upon the West Canada creek are fairly satisfactory from a. sanitary standpoint, although in •some eases dwelling bouses and farm buildings are located rather close to the stream or its tributaries. Considerable protection is, however, alforded by the large storage secured in the Hinckley reservoir. Perhaps the most serious opportunity for pollution of the supply is due to the logging operations which are carried on upon the watershed bringing about the use of the creek and the reservoir for the floating of lops to the pulp mill at Hinckley.
The watershed of Starch Factory creek, tributary to reservoir No. 1. is approximately 2 square miles in area and the population thereon may bo estimated at 50 per square mile. The majority of houses upon this watershed are fairly well distant from the stream or its tributaries, although as the slopes are precipitous, the run-off at times of heavy rainfall undoubtedly carries considerable contaminating material into the supply. In case of the watershed tributary No. 4, the area is about 1 square mile and some 8 or 9 houses only are located thereon. The population may, therefore, be estimated at about 40 per square mile. Of these houses, all but two are along the extreme south edge of the watershed area and there seems to be little opportunity for direct contamination of the supply. The watershed tributary to reservoir No. 1 is one-half square mile in area with an estimated resident population of 30 per square mile. The houses are located fairly well distant from the stream. These southern watersheds are also patrolled by a resident caretaker who, from inquiries amongst the inhabitants on the sheds, is apparently taking reasonable precautions to protect the supply. Many of the houses , are provided with privies having removable containers which at frequent intervals are emptied and the contents disposed of by the patrolman.
In February, 1917, a rather serious but localized break of typhoid fever occurred in Utica which upon an investigation by this Department was attributed to ah infection of the water in the mains through cross connection-s between auxiliary fire supplies from polluted sources. As a result of recommendations of this Department steps have been taken by the city authorities to secure means whereby a similar occurrence may not again happen. It is proposed that where gate valves alone or single check valves have been used in making such cross connection, double checks and gates be provided and so located in accessible manholes as to permit of frequent and regular inspections and tests.
At the time of the inspection samples of the wnter were collected for analyses and the results of the analyses of these samples, together with others made in the past by the Division of Laboratories and Research will be found in the appended table.
The results of analyses of the raw water from the Hinckley supply have shown in the past a moderate amount of active contamination as indicated by the total bacterial counts and the presence of organisms of the B. eoli type. The herewith tabulated analyses of the treated water from this source, however, show that effective sterilization was being secured at the time the samples were collected, the total bacterial counts being low and organisms of the 15. coli type being absent in the inoculations tested. The water from the northern supply is, however, highly colored although very soft. It contains considerable amounts of organic matter, derived undoubtedly from the swamps through which the stream at certain points passes.
In the ease of the southern water supply the raw water shows evidence of active contamination and thus the necessity of careful purification is indicated. The samples of the treated water show that sufficient sterilization was being maintained at the time the samples were collected, although it is evident that in the case of the supply going to New Hartford, the water was somewhat unsatisfactory, due to the failure of the chlorination plant to properly operate for that supply. The water from the southern watersheds is extremely hard, fairly free from color, although at times rather turbid. The figures for organic matter are decidedly less than in the case of the northern supply.
Due to the above facts the following conclusions may be drawn:
1. That the public water supply of Utica, furnished by the Consolidated Water Company of Utica, should be of a satisfactory sanitary quality provided efficient chlorination of the supply is at all times maintained.
2. That conditions upon both the northern and southern watersheds are such (hat storage ami chlorination alone are probably sufficient purification for the present so long as careful enforcement of the rules and regulations is carried out.
:!. That the village.of New Hartford may at times receive water actively contaminated, due to interruptions in the operation of the sterilization apparatus.
i. That the method for applying chlorine at the Marcy reservoir is somewhat crude and one which, without very careful oversight, is liable to give unsatisfactory sterilization.
5. That the chlorination apparatus at both the Deerfield and No. 4 reservoirs appeared to be operating satisfactory at the time of the inspection.
6. That, although certain steps have been taken, further action is needed to more adequately protect the supply from contamination in the distribution system from cross-connected auxiliary fire supplies.
I would recommend therefore:
1. That the water company maintain careful patrol of the watersheds tributary to the various sources of supply and enforce vigorously the rules and regulations enacted by this Department.
2. That supplies be at all time efficiently sterilized. In this connection action should be taken to install a more satisfactory apparatus at the Marcy reservoir and to provide duplicate equipment for the New Hartford supply to obviate periods of nonoperation.
3. That the action already started toward the protection of the water in the distribution mains from pollution through cross connections be continued, either by the complete severance of the auxiliary mill supplies or by the installation of properly designed double check valves and gates placed in accessible manholes. Furthermore, in the case of the double check valve installation regular and frequent inspection should be made to determine the satisfactory operation of these safeguards.
I would further recommend that copies of this report be transmitted to the water company, the city health officer and to the sanitary supervisor of the district.
Albany, N. Y., July 6, 1918