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"whom the Divine Providence has assembled in this royal city, Patriarchs, and other Bishops, as those who must hereafter give account of their deeds, do (on the impulse of necessity, cyrii is ana- and after the example and decrees of the Holy Fathers, who were filled with the Holy Ghost; who, when there was a call, acted nobly in their Synods,) decree that Cyril Lucar shall be publicly denounced, and delivered over to an anathema; and moreover, (lest the Faith should be hindered by those who petulantly murmur at our proceedings,) that all and singular who receive as pious his vain dogmas, shall be bound with the same anathema.
"To Cyril, surnamed Lucar, who has falsely asserted, in the superscription of his wicked Articles, that the whole Eastern Church of Christ is of the same belief as Calvin, Anathema."
This is, perhaps, a fair deduction, though not quite fairly stated. It is certainly true, that Cyril had no right to dignify his confession with the title of that of the Eastern Church; especially when, in several particulars, it treated of subjects in which she had come to no synodical conclusion.
"To Cyril, who teaches and believes that the Holy Church of Jesus Christ can lie: (they then quote his second and twelfth Articles) anathema. From these absurdities, or rather downright madness, it follows either that Jesus, the GoD-Man, the very Truth, can lie, or that He is not with His Church for ever, as He promised: it follows also that the Holy Spirit does not speak by the Church, and that the gates of hell—the heresies of wicked men—can prevail against it. Lastly, that any one may rightly doubt, whether the Holy Gospel, which we have in common use, as handed down by the Church be true, and not another Gospel."
This anathema seems perfectly fair. We cannot say so of the next.
"To Cyril, who teaches and believes that the good God has chosen some to glory before the foundation of the world, and predestinated them without works, and has reprobated others without cause before the world was, and that the works of none are sufficient to demand a reward before the tribunal of Christ,
as he saith expressly in his third and thirteenth articles: (since it thence follows, either that God is the Author of evil, and unjust, or that none who are involved in the Fall of Adam can be saved: also that the Gospels are false, when they say, ' I was an hungered, and ye gave Me meat:' and again, 'Come ye, Blessed of My Father/ &c: lastly, that Paul the Mouth of Christ, and James the Lord's Brother, the one saying that not the hearers of the law, but the doers of the law were just, —the other, that faith without works is dead, were deceived:)— Anathema."
Now, as we have before seen, Cyril never asserted absolute Predestination, as this article declares that he did. The latter part of the anathema, if not itself unsound, is stated in an extremely unsafe manner.
"To Cyril teaching in his eighth article obscurely indeed and craftily, and believing that the Saints are not our Mediators and Intercessors with God: (they quote the passage) as subverting many oracles of the Holy Ghost :—Anathema. For God saith, 'I will protect this city for the sake of David My Servant.5 And the Holy Children in the furnace, 'give us not utterly over for the sake of Abraham Thy Beloved, and Isaac Thy Servant, and Israel Thy Saint.' And Peter saith, 'Moreover I will endeavour, after my decease, that ye may be able to have these things continually in remembrance.' But how could he endeavour after his decease, except by interceding and praying to God V They conclude by quoting the second Council of Nicsea.
"To Cyril, who teaches and believes that man is not endued with free-will, as is clear from his fourteenth Article; but that every man has the power of sinning, but not the power of doing good; as the destroyer of the Gospels and Prophets, (where it is written, 'If ye choose and will hear Me:' 'Draw near to Him, and be enlightened;' 'He that will come after Me:' 'Come unto Me all:' — add also the frequent exhortations to do good:) Anathema."
"To Cyril, who teaches and believes that there are not seven Sacraments,"—they name them,—" according to the disposition of Christ, the tradition of the Apostles, and the customs of
the Church, but falsely asserting, that only two were by Christ in His Gospel handed down to us, that is to say, Baptism and the Eucharist, as may be seen in his fifteenth Article;— Anathema."
"To Cyril, who teaches and believes that the Bread offered at the Altar, and also the Wine, is not changed, by the Blessing of the Priest, and Descent of the Holy Ghost, into the Real Body and Blood of Christ; (they quote his seventeenth Article;)— Anathema." They support this by S. John vii. 53, 56. S. Matthew xxvi. 27, 28. 1 Corinthians xii. 23, 45: and by the Canons of the seventh (Ecumenical Synod.
"To Cyril, who teaches and believes, though secretly, in his eighteenth Article, that those who have fallen asleep in piety and penitence, are not, after death, assisted by the alms of their relations, and the prayers of the Church, as the denier of the happy rest of the just, the absolute perdition of the wicked, and the future judgment and retribution in the last and terrible day; which is most opposite to the Holy Scripture, and the teaching of all Divines;—Anathema."
"To Cyril a new Iconoclast, and the worst of all; Anathema." The two succeeding anathemas are merely an amplification of the last: and the two last a recapitulation and enforcement of the whole.
Whatever may be thought of many of these anathemas, and of the unfair spirit which all exhibit to Cyril, this is, doubtless, a very important Council: and certainly may be called a general Synod of the Greek Church, receiving as it does, additional authority from its subsequent confirmation by the Council of Jerusalem.
It is signed by three Patriarchs: Cyril of Constantinople; Metrophanes of Alexandria; Theophanes of Jerusalem. The Church of Antioch it would seem, was at this time in some confusion, from the Latinising tendencies of Euthymius II. which may be the reason that he did not subscribe to the above anathemas. Joasaph, Patriarch of Moscow, was much averse from all contentions: and probably was glad to remain quiet.
In addition, it is signed by twenty-four Archbishops and Bishops, three of whom were afterwards Patriarchs of Constan
tinople: namely, Parthenius the elder, then of Adrianople; Parthenius the younger, then of Joannine; Joannicius of Heraclea: two were Patriarchs of Alexandria; namely, Joannicius of Bersea and Joachim of Cos. And lastly, it is subscribed by twenty-one dignitaries of the great church of Constantinople; of whom one, Nicholas Clarontzanes, was afterwards Patriarch of Alexandria. Thus then, these anathemas are pronounced by nine, who either then, or afterwards, were Patriarchs: a greater number, probably than ever subscribed to any other Synod.
It is necessary to notice this fact, because the Calvinists, irri- 2taJjX<« tated at the failure of the hopes which they had conceived from £?uncii.thi3 Cyril Lucar, are loud in their assertions that this Council is by no means an exponent of the mind of the Greek Church, and furious in their outcry against the principal Prelates who composed it. It is true, that we cannot think highly of many of them; it is also true, that the testimony of Cyril of Bersea goes for nothing, because he was notorious for his Latinising principles: but the other Bishops and Ecclesiastics are unexceptionable testimonies against Calvinism, the rather, that one of them, Parthenius, was suspected of it.
Shortly after the conclusion of this Synod, the Sultan returned in great triumph to Constantinople;1 and Cyril Contari, ?e'jiEathput being accused of several enormous crimes, was banished by him into Barbary, and there, says Philip of Cyprus, perished, as his crimes deserved, by a cruel death. Others say that he was A.d. 1639. strangled, on the earnest request of the friends of Cyril Lucar. Parthenius, Metropolitan of Adrianople, and known by the name of the elder, was elected to the (Ecumenical Throne.
In the meantime, the Confession of Cyril Lucar had made no Russian
Council of Constantinople.
Its chapters.imovich, an Archimandrite of eminence, and approved by a Synod of Russian Bishops summoned at Kieff. It is still (corrected, as we shall afterwards see,) held in great reputation, though acknowledged not to be free from a tinge of Latinism. In the year 1641 Parthenius summoned a synod at Constantinople, at which eight Prelates and four dignitaries of the great church were present, and in this assembly the word u-sTouo-iWij, Transubstantiation, is said to have been authorised. It is also said that a Priest, named Corydonius1 protested against its adoption, as a term unknown to the Fathers, and the offspring of Latin scholasticism.2
In the next year, a more important synod was held at Jassy, in Moldavia, by the exertions of John, hospodar of that country.3 The acts of this Council are incorporated with, and authenticated by, those of the Council of Bethlehem: though it is then, and generally, named the Synod of Constantinople, either from a confusion with that of the preceding year, or because it was looked on as merely a continuation of that, or because the name of Constantinople was more familiar to the Oriental Church than that of Jassy, and the (Ecumenical Patriarch presided.
The decrees of this Synod are contained in seventeen Chapters: and the condemnation of Cyril Lucar is more gently expressed than it had been in the first Synod of Constantinople. Still, the strictures are not altogether fair; for example, in the first he is condemned for asserting that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son, whereas his express terms are, from the Father by the Son. All the chapters of Cyril, (except the seventh, on the Incarnation,) are condemned, and those who obstinately defend them are delivered over to an anathema: but no stigma is thrown on his own memory: nor is any reference made to either the first or second Synods of Constantinople. The decrees are signed by Parthenius, (Ecumenical Patriarch: PeterM ogilas, Archbishop of Kieff, Joannicius of Heraclea, afterwards Patriarch of Constantinople: twenty other Prelates, of whom four were Russians: and twenty