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of the 8. g. 0.882. Liquor ammonite is stimulant,

antacid, and rubefacient. Dose gtt. to xx, in wator or milk.

Liquor Ammohms Aceta'tis, Al'cali ammoni'acuni aceta'tum, Alcali volat'ile aceta'tum, Aqua aceta'tis amino'nia, Solution of acetate of ammonia, Aqua ammo'nias aceta'ta, Ace'tas ammonia, Spirit of Mindere'rus, Sal ammoui'acum vegetab'ile, Spir'itus ophthalmicus Minderc'ri, Sal aceto'tus ammo niaca'lis. (Acid, acetic, dilut. Oij, Amnion, carbonat, in pulv. add tbe salt to the acid until it is saturated. Ph. U. S. ISil.} A sudorific; externally, cooling. Dose, fg'ij to fijiss.

Liquor Ammonia Subcarbona'tis, Solu'tio tubcarbonatis ammonia, Aqaa carbonatis ammonia, Solution of subcarbonate of ammonia. (Ammonia carbon, ^iv, aqua dent Mat. Oj. Dissolve and filter through paper.) Use; — the same as that of tbe carbonate of ammonia. * Liquor Ammu.nii Hydrothiodjs, Ammonias sulphuretum— L ex Ammonia, et oleo succini, Spiritus ammonia) suecinatus—1. Ammonii vinoBus, Spiritus ammonite.

Liquor Am'nii, Aqua amnii. The liquor of the amnios. (F.J Eaux de Vamnio*. The fluid exhaled by tbe amnios, and which envelops the foetus during the whole period of utero-gestation. Itis often simply called the waters, (¥.) Lcs Eaux. Its relative quautity diminishes as pregnancy advances, although its absolute quantity continues to increase till the period of delivery. In some women only five or six ounces are met with : in others, it amounts to pints. It is limpid, yellowish, or whitish ; exhales a faint smell, and has a elightly saline taste. It contains water in considerable quantity; albumen; chloride of sodium; phosphate of lime; an alkaline substance; and a particular acid. It facilitates the dilatation of the uterus, and aids delivery by acting as a soft wedge enclosed in its membranes, Poche dex Eaux, &c. It is probably inservient to useful purposes in the nutrition of the foetus.

Liquor Amnii, False. The fluid contained between the amnion and chorion in the early periods of foetal existence.

Liquor, Anodyne, Hoffmann's, Spiritus cetheris sulphurici compositus—1. Anodynus martialis, Alcohol sulphurico-aetbereus ferri.

Liquor Anod'ynus Terebintbina'tus. A formula prescribed by Rademncher in cases of gallBtone, and of obstructions and indurations of the liver and spleen. It was composed of Hoffmann's anodyne liquor ^y, rectified oil of turpentine ^ij* Dose b to 10 drops. It resembles the Remlde de Durand.

Liquor Arsenica'lis, L. potas'sa arseni'tis (Ph. U. S.), Solu'tio arsenicalis, S. arsenica'ta, S. arseni'tis kal'ica, Arsen'ical solution, Min'cral solvent, Ar'senis potas'sa liq'uidus, Ar'sem's potassa aqua'sus, Fowler'* solution of arsenic, Solvent minrra'le, Jtal'ian poison, Aqua Tofa'na, Aqua Toffa'nia, Acqna della Toffana, Acqna di Napoli, Acquet'ta (?), Tasteless ague drop, (F.J Liqueur arsenicale. (Acid. Arsenios. in frustulis, potassa carbonatis pur., sing. gr. lxiv., aqua destiilat. q. B. Boil together the arsenious acid and carbonate of potassa with twelve fluid ounces of distilled water, in a glass vessel, until the arsenic is disfolved. When the solution is cold, add Spirit, lavand. c. fg'iY, and as much distilled water as will mako the whole one pint Ph. U. S.) fgj contains gr. ss of the arsenious acid. Dose, gtt. xx.

LrQuon Arsenici Et Iiydrargyri Iodidx, see Arsenic and Mercury, iodide of—1. Barii chloridi, Baryta,muriate,solution of—l.Bellosti,L.IIydrargyri nitrici — 1 Calcii chloridi, see Calcis inurias.

Liquor Calcis, Solu'tio calcia, Aqua calcis, ftqua bsnedio'ta, Calca'ria pura liq'uida, Aqua

calca'ria usta, Solution of Lime, Lime Water, fF.)

Eaudechaux. (Calcis^iv. aq. destill. oong. Poor the water on the lime, and stir. Let it stand in a covered vessel three hours; bottle tbe lime and water in stopped bottles, and use the clear solution.) It is astringent, tonic, and antacid; and is used in diarrhoea, diabetes, heartburn, Ac, and as a lotion to foul and cancerous ulcers, Ac Dose, j^ij to Oss, in milk.

Liquor Calcis Compos'ttus, Aqua calcis compos'it a, Compound lime water, Aqua benedic'ta compos'ita, (F.) Eau de chaux compost. (Lign. quaiac. ras. lbss, rad. glycyrrh. £ j, cort. sassafras, 3ss; semin. coriand. JJij, liquor calcis, Ovj. Macerate for two days, and filter.) It is stimulant, diaphoretic, and astringent, and is used in cutaneous affections.

Liquor Calcis Muriatis, see Calcis murias— 1. Ccreris, Cerevisia— 1. Chloreti nutri, L. soda chlorinatee—1. Chlorini, see Chlorine—1. Chlorureti natri, L. Sodee chlorinate—1. Chlorureti t L. sodse chlorinatse.

Liquor Cupri Ammonia'ti, Aqua cupri an nia'ti, Aqua sapphari'na, Blue eyewater. Solution of ammoniated copper ; (F.) Liqueur ou Eau de cuivre ammoniacal. (Cupri ammoniot. ^j- aqua destilL Oj. Dissolve and fitter the solution through paper. J'h. L.) Corrosive and detergent. Used externally to foul ulcers; and diluted with an equal part of distilled water, itis applied by means of a hair pencil to specks and films on the eye.

Liquor Cupri Sulpha'tis Compos'itus, Aqua cupri vitriola'ti composita. (Cupri sulphat., alumin. sulphat. aa aqua pura Oij, acid sulpK 3y. Boil tbe salts in the water until they are dissolved; then filter the liquor, and add the acid.) Used as an astringent in epis taxis, A c. It was also called Aqua Styp'tica.

Liquor Cyreniacus, Benjamin — 1. Excitans, Spiritus ammonise suecinatus.

Liquor Ferri Alkali'ni, Solution of Alkalin* Iron, (F.) Liqueur de fcr alcaline. (Ferri IJiiss, acid, nitric, ^ij, aqua dmtiflat. f^vj. Iiq. potass, subctirb. f^vj. To tbe acid and water mixed, add the iron ; and, after the eflervescence, add the clear solution, gradually, to the tiq. potassa subcarb.; shaking it occasionally till it assumes a deep brown-red colour, and the effervescence stops. After six hours* settling, pour off the clear solution. Ph. L.) It is tonic, like other preparations of iron. Dose, f^ss to fgiss.

Liquor Ferri Io'dipi, Solution of Iodide of Iron, Syru'pus Ferri io'didi, Syrup of I'odide of Iron. (Iodin. ^ij, Ferri rament. Sacehar. pulv. £xij, Aqua destiilat. q. s. Mix tbe iodine with f£x of the distilled water, in a porcelain or glass vessel, and gradually add the iron filings, constantly stirring. Heat the mixture gently until tbe liquor acquires a light greenish colour; then, having added the sugar, continue the beat a short time, aud filter. Lastly, pour distilled water upon the filter, and allow it to pass until the whole of the filtered liquor measures twenty fluidounces. Keep the solution in closely stopped bottles.—Ph. U. S.) Dose, 10 to 30 drops.

Liquor Ferri Muriatis, Tinctura ferri muriatis.

Liquor Ferri Nitra'tis, L. F. Se*quiw'tra'ti$ seu tenn'tra'tis, Solu'tio Fern nitra'tis. Stdution of nitrate, ternitratc of sesqniaxide, or senquinitrnte of iron, has been recommended in chronie diarrhoea and dysentery. Its virtui'S exactly resemble those of chloride of iron. It is prepared as follows: — Ferri jili, mcis. ^j. Acid, nitric* f^iij, Aq. devtillat. q. s. Mix the acid and a pint ot distilled water, until gas ceases to be gives off: filter, and add distilled nnler to make f^xxx, —Ph. U. S.) Dose, 10 to 20 drops.

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Battley. It is said to be an aqueous solution

of opium, evaporated to dryness to get rid of the acid resin, re-dissolved in water, and a small portion of alcohol added to give it permanence.—Redwood. It is devoid of many of the narcotic effects of opium.

Liquor Ovi Ai.bus, Albumen ovi—1. Pancreaticus, see Pancreas — 1. Pericardii, see Pericardium— 1. Plumbi acetatis, L. P. subacetatis — L Plumbi diacetatis, Liquor Plumbi subacetatis.

Liquor Plumbi Subaceta'tis, Liquor Subaceta'tts Lithargyri, Solution of Subacetate of Lead, Liquor Plumbi Aceta'tis, L. P. Diaceta'tis, Goulard's Extrae'tum Satur'ni, Lithar'gyri Ace'turn, (F.) Liqueur de sous-acetate de Plomb. (Pfumb. acet. £ xvj, Plumb, oxid. eemivitr. in pulv. subtil, ^ixss, aq. destillat. Oiv. Boil together in a glass or porcelain vessel, for half an hour, occasionally adding distilled water, Bo as to preserve the measure. Filter through paper, and keep the solution in closely stopped bottles.—Ph. V. S.) It ia used externally as a cooling astringent, and dUcutient, when diluted with distilled water.

Liquor Plumbi Subaceta'tis Dilu'tus, Liquor Subaceta'tis Lithar'gyri Compos'itns, Aqua Satur'ni, Ace'tas Plumbi dilv'tum alcohol'icum, Diluted Solu'tion of Subac"etate of Lead, Aqua veg"eto-mincra'Us, Tinctu'ra plumbo'sa, Aqua Lithar'gyri Aceta'ti compos'ita, Liquor Plumbi Aceta'tis dilu'tus, Goulard toater, (F.) Eau, blanche, Ean de Goidard, Eau vigfto-minirah, White Wash, Boyal Preventive. (Liq. plumbi subacet, f£ij, aqua destillat. Oj. Ph. U. S.) Properties the same as the last, but feebler.

Liquor Potas's^s, Aqua Potas'sa, Aqua Kali Gaust'ici, Solution of Potash or of Potassa, Lixiv'ium magistra'li, L. Sapona'rium, Soap Lees, Aqua Kali purif Soap Ley, Lixiv'ium cau'sticum, Potas'sa liq'uida, (F.) Eau, solution ou liqueur de Potasse, Potass* Uquide, Lessive des Savfumiers. (Potassa carb. tbj, calcis Ibss, aqua destilt. fervent, congium. Dissolve the alkali in Oij of the water, and add the remainder of the lime. Mix the whole : set aside in a close vessel, and, when cold, filter through calico. Ph. L.) It is an till thic in cases of uric acid caleutr, and antacid. Externally, stimulant and eseharobic. Dose, gtt x to xx.

Liquor Potass^ Arseihtis, L. arsenicnlis—■ 1. Potassa? Carbonatis, L. P. Subcarbonatie.

Liquor Potass* Citra'tis, Solution of Citrate of Potassa, Neutral Mixture, Sah'ne Mixture. (Suce. Limon. Oss, Potass. Bicarbonat. q. s.) saturate by the carbonate of potassa, and filter; or, Acid. Citric ^ss; 01. Ltmon. Tt^. ij; Aqua Oss, Potass. Bicarbonat. q. s.; dissolve, saturate by the carbonate of potassa, and filter. Ph. U. S.) Used in fever, but probably of little or no efficacy.

Liquor Potass-e Subcarboita'tis, L. P. Carbonatis (Ph. U. S.), Aqua Subcarbonatis Kali, O'leum Ta^tari per deliq'uium, Aqua Kali, LixivSum Tartari, Aqua Kali prapara'ti. Oil of Tartar, Saline oil of Tartar, Solu'tion of Subcar*bonate of Potass, (F.) Liqueur de sous-carbonate) de Potasse, Lessive de Tartre, (Potass, subcarb, tbj, aquee destillat. f^xij. Dissolve and filter.) Dose, gtt. x to xxx.

Liquor Potassti Iodidi seu Potassjb HtdriOda'tis, Solution of Iodide of Potassium or of Hydriodate of Potass. (Potassii iodid. gr. 86, aqua destillat. f^j.) Dose, gtt xx, three times a day.

Liquor, Propaqatory, Sperm—1. Prostaticus, Prostatic ltquor—1. Puris, see Pus.

Liqi'or Siifo'uiNis. A term given by Dr. Babington to one of the constituents of *.he blood, the other being the red particles. Ha considers, from his experiment* *hcX itrin and LIQUORICE

520

LITHODRASSIC

se*um do not exist as rack in circulating blood, bni that the Liquor Sanguinis Plasma, of Sohultz, Coagulable or plastic Lymph, the Mucago or Mucilage of Harvey, iiewson and others— when removed from the circulation and no longer subjected to the laws of life, has then, and not before, the property of separating into fibrin and serum. It is the oxyprotein of the liquor sanguinis, after the red particles have subsided, and, according to Mulder, forms the buffy coat of inflammatory blood.

Liquor Of Scarpa, Vitrine auditive.

Liquor Skm'inis. The homogeneous, transparent fluid, in which the spermatozoa and seminal granules are suspended.—Wagner. See Sperm.

Liquor Soda Chloridi, L. sodas chlorinate.

Liquor Soda Chlorina'ta, L. soda ehlo'ridi, L. soda oxymuriat'ica, L. chlorc'ti natri, L. ehlorureti natri, L. chloreti soda, L. chlorure'ti sodas, JSatrum chlora'tum liq'uidum, L. natri oxymuriai'ici, Aqua natri oxymuriat'ici, Labarraque's Disinfecting Liquid, Solution of Chlorinated Soda. {Colds Chlorinat. D>j; Soda Carbonat. Ibij ; Aqua cong. iss. Dissolve the carbonate of eoda in three pints of the water, with the aid of heat. To the remainder of the water add, by small portions at a time, the chlorinated lime, previously well triturated, stirring the mixture after each addition. Set the mixture by for several hours, that the dregs may subside; decant the clear liquid, and mix it with the solution of carbonate of soda. Lastly, decant the clear liquor from the precipitated carbonate of lime, pass it through a linen cloth, and keep it in bottles secluded from the light; Ph. U. S.) Used in the same cases as the chloride of lime. Internally, 10 drops to a fluidrachm, for a dose. Diluted with water, it is an excitant and disinfectant in various morbi externi.

Liquor Soda Effervescens, Acidulous water, simple — 1. Sod® Oxymuriatiero, L. sodas chlorinate—I. Stypticus Ruspini, Styptic, Rospini's—1. Sulphuricus Alcoolisatus, Spiritus setheris sulphurici — 1. Swietenis, L. hydrargyri oxymuriatis — 1. Syphiliticus Turneri, L. hydrargyri oxymuriatis—1. Tartari emetici, Vinum antimonii tartariiati— L of Van Swieten, L. hydrargyri oxymuriatis.

Liquor Volat'ilis Corku Cervi, L. volat'ilis Cornu Cervi'ni, Volatile Liquor of Hartshorn, Spir'itus Lumbrico'rum, Spir'itus Alillepeda'rum, Spir'itus Cornu Cervi, Liquor volat'ilis os'sium; Hartshorn, Spirit of Hartshorn, Bone Spirit, (F.) Liqueur volatile de Come de cerf. This is a solution of subcarbonnte of ammonia, impregnated with cmpyreumatic oil. It possesses the same virtues as the subcarbonate of ammonia. It is in common use to smell at, in faintings, Ac.

Liquor VotATiLig Ossiuh, L. volatilis cornu cervi.

Liquor Znroi Sulpha'tis Cum Camph'ora, Aqua Zinei vitriola'ti cum Camphord, Aqua vitriol'ica camphord'ta, Aqua ophthal'mica, Common Eve Water. {Zinci sulph.Zss, camphor, aq. builicnt. Oij ; dissolve and filter.) Used as a lotion for ulcers; or, diluted with water, as a collyriura.

LIQUORICE, Glycyrrhiia —1. Bush, Abrus precatorius — 1. Juice, see Glycyrrhiia — 1. Refined, Extractum glycyrrhiias — 1. Spanish, see Glycyrrhiia—1. Wild, Arulia nudioanlis, Galium circaszans.

LIQUORITIA, Glyeyrrhiza.

^iIRIODEN'DRON, Liriodendrcm tulipifera, Tulipifera Lirioden'dron, Old wife's shirt, Tulip Tree, Poplar Tree, Tulip-bearing Poplar, American Poplar, White Bood, Cypress Tree, (Now England,) (F.) Tulipier. The bark — Lirioden

dron (Ph. U. S.)—especially of the root, of this noble forest tree, which is indigenous in the United States, is a strong aromatic bitter, and has been employed advantageously as a tonic. An active principle was separated from it by Professor J. P. Emmet of the University of Virginia, and has been called Lirioden'drin. It is not used in medicine.

LIS BLANC, Lilium candidum—I. Asphodile, Asphodelus ramosus.

LISEKON, GRAND, Convolvulus sepium— I. des Haies, Convolvulus sepium—I. Mechameeh, Convolvulus panduratus.

LISTON'S ISINGLASS PLASTER, see Sparadrapum adhassivum.

LITE, Ainj. A plaster, formerly made of verdigris, wax, and resin.— Galen.

LITHAGO'GUM, from Aifej, 'a stone,' and ayv, ' I expel.' A remedy which was supposed to possess the power of expelling calculi. Also, a lithotomy forceps.

LITHANTHRAX, Carbo fossilis.

LITHANTHROKOKALI, Anthrakokali.

LITHARGE, Plnmbi oxydum semivitrcum—L of Gold, see Plumbi oxydum eemivitreum—1. of Silver, see Plumbi oxvdum semivitrenm.

LITHARGYRI ACETUM, Liquorplumbi snbaeetatis.

LITHARGTRUM, Plumbi oxydnm semivi. treum.

LITHARGYRUS, Plumbi oxydum semivitrenm.

LITHAS, Urate.

LITHATE, Urate—1. of Soda, Urate of soda.

LITHEC'TASY, from Xi8of, 'a stone,' and tsraatt, 1 dilatation Cyttec'tasy. An operation which consists in extracting stone from the bladder by dilating the neck of the organ, after making an incision in the perineum, and opening the membranous portion of the urethra.

LITH'IA, Lithi'asis, Lithogen'ia, Vri'aris, Urolithiasis, Cachex'ia caleulo'sa, Cal'culi Morbus, Lapilla'tio, Genera'tio cal'culi, from Atft*(,4 a stone.' The formation of stone, gravel, or concretions in the human body. Also, an affection, in which the eyelids are edged with small, hard, and stone-like concretions.

Lith'ia, Car'bonatb or, Lith'ia Car'bonas, (F.) Carbonate de Lithine. A salt found in certain mineral waters, which have been serviceable in lithuria. Hence, it has been suggested in that morbid condition.

Lithia Rexalis Arenosa, Gravel—1. Renalis, Nephrolithiasis — I. Vesicalis, Calculi, vesical.

LITHI.fi CARBONAS, Lithia, carbonate of.

LITHIASIS, Lithia —1. Cystica, Calculi, vesical — I. Ncphretica, Gravel, Nephrolithiasis.

LlTm'ASIS Pulmo'kum, Pulmo'nes tartarita'tu The formation of concretions in the lungs, occasioning at times Phthisis caleulo'sa, Phthisis calculeuse, of Bayle.

Litriasis Rknalis Arejtosa, Gravel — 1. Renalis, Nephrolithiasis — 1. Vesicalis, Calculi, vesical.

LITHIC, Lith'ieus. Same etymon. Belonging to lithio or urio acid, or to stone: hence Lithic Diath'esis. Also, an antilithic.

Lithic Acid, Urio acid—1. Acid diathesis, Lithuria—1. Diathesis, Lithuria—1. Sediments, see Lithuria.

LITHINE, CABBONATE HE, Lithia, carbonnto of.

LITHIURIA. Lithuria.
LITHOCENOSIS, Lithotrity.
LITHOCYSTOTOMY, Lithotomy.
LITHODIALYSIS, Lithotrity.
LITUODRAS'SIC, Lithodras'sicus, (F.) Lithe.

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draaaiquc, from Xi9e$, 1 a stone/ and Spaamv, * to seize hold of/ An epithet given to a form of Stone forceps—Pi nee lithodraaaique—used in the operation of lithotrity, by MM. Meirieu and Tantihon.

LITHOGENIA, Lithia.

LITHOID, Litho'dee, LithoVdet; from \t9oS, 4 stone/ and u&os, ' resemblance.' Of the nature of atone, or resembling stone: as

LITUOIDES OS, see Temporal bone, v LITHOLABE, (F.) Lithol'abum. An instrument, employed for laying hold of a stone in the bladder, and keeping it fixed, so that lithotritic instruments can act upon it.

LITHOLABON, Forceps, (Lithotomy.)

LITUOI/ABUM, from Ai0o*, 'a stone,' and i-iu.j.aw. 'I seize.' An instrument concerned in extracting stone from the bladder. It had various shapes. — Fabricius ab Aquapendente, Hildanus. See Litholabe.

LITHOME'TRA, from Xiflof, 'a stono/ and pwrpa, * the uterus.' Osseous, or other concretions of the uterus.

LITHONLYTIC, Lithontriptio.

LITUOXTURYPTIC, Lithontriptio.

LITHONTRIP'TIC, Lithontrip'tieua, Lithonthryp'tic, Lithonlyt'ic, Calculi/'ragua, Saxif'ragua, from \tdos, * a stone,' and flpuirrw, ' I break in pieces.' A remedy believed to be capable of dissolving calculi in the urinary passages. There is not much reliance to be placed upon such remedies. By antilithica, exhibited according to the chemical character of the calculus (see Calculi, urinary,) the disease may be prevented from increasing; but most of the vaunted lithontriptics for dissolving the calculus already formed havo been found unworthy of the high encomiums which have accompanied their introduction.

LITHOP^l'DION, In/ana lapide'ua, Oatcopce.'dion, from XiS«, 'a stone,' and *act, 'a child.' A foetus, petrified in the body of the mother.

LITHOPRINIE, Lithotrity.

LITHOPRIONE, from \i9oS, 'a atone,' and vfuuv, 'a saw.' An instrument proposed by M. Leroy for preventing the fragment* of a calculus, when subjected to lithotrity, from falling into the bladder. It is a variety of litholabe.

LITHORINEUR, from \i6os, 'a stone,' and QurttVy 'to file.' An instrument, proposed by MM. Meirieu and Tanchou for filing down calculi in the bladder.

LTTIIOS, Calculus.

LITHOSPER'MUM OFFICINALE, Mil'ium Salia, jEgon1'ychon, 6romwcllf Baatard Al'kanet, (F.) Grimil officinal, Herbc a us Perlea. The seeds of this plant were formerly supposed, from their stony hardness, (XiSos, 'a stone,' and antppa, 'seed,') to be efficacious in calculous affections. They have, also, been considered diuretic.

LiTiiosPerhCm Villosuh, Anchusa tine tori a.

LITHOTERE'THRUM, from Xidot, 'stone/ and repuv, 'to rub.' A lithotritor.

LITHOTIIRYPSIS, Lithotrity.

LITHOTHRYPTORS, see Lithotrity.

LITHOTOME, Lithot'omua, from \t$o<, 'a stone/ and ripvu, 'I cut' This name has been given to a number of instruments of different shapes and sizes, which are used in the operation for the stone, to cut the neck or body of the bladder. They ought, with more propriety, to be called Cyatotomea.

The Lithotome Cachi of Frere COme is the most known, and is still occasionally used. It Is composed of a handle, and a flattened sheath, slightly curved: in this there is a cutting blade, which can be forced out, by pressing upon a baa

cule or lever, to any extent that may be wished

by the operator.

A Double Lithotome was used by Dupuytren in his bilateral operation. See Lithotomy.

LITHOT'OMIST. Same etymon. Lithot'omua. One who devotes himself entirely to operating for the stone. One who practises lithotomy.

LITHOTOMY, Lithotom'ia, Cyatotom't'a, Urolithotom'ia, Sectio veaiea'lia, Lithocyatot'omy, same etymon. (F.) Taille. The operation by which a stone is extracted from the bladder. The different methods, according to which this operation may be practised, are reducible to five principal : each of which has experienced numerous modifications.

L The Method of CeUua, Meth'odua Celaia'na, Cyatotom'ia cum appara'tu parvo, Appara'tua Minor, Cutting on the Gripe. This consisted in cutting upon the stone, after having made it project at the perinseum by means of the fingers introduced into the rectum. This method was attended with several inconveniences; such as the difficulty of dividing the parts neatly, injury done to the bladder, as well as the impossibility of drawing down the stone in many persons. It is sometimes, also, called Meth'odua Guytonia'na; from Guy do Chauliao having endeavoured to remove from it the discredit into which it had fallen in his time. It was termed Apparatua Minor, (F.) Le petit appareil, from the small number of instruments required in it.

2. Apparatua Major. This method was invented, in 1520, by John do Romani, a surgeon of Cremona, and communicated by him to ftlariano-S an to-di-B arietta, whence it was long called Mariano'e Method, Sec'tio Jfaria'na. It was called, also, Apparatua Major, and Cyatotom'ia vel Meth'odua cum appara'tu magno, (F.) Le grand appareil, from the number of instruments required in it. An incision was made on the median line; but the neck of the bladder was not comprehended in it It was merely dilated. The greater apparatus was liable to many inconveniences, such as ecchymoses ; contusion; inflammation of the neck of the bladder; abscesses; urinary fistulse; incontinence of urine; impotence, Ac.

3. The High Operation, Apparatua altua, Cyatotom'ia cum apparatu alto, C. Hypogaa'trica^ Epicyatotom'ia, Laparocyetotom'iaf Scvtio sett Meth'odua Franconia'na, S. Hypogaa'trica, & alta, (F.) Haut appareilt Taille Hypoga$triquef Taille aua-pubienne, was first practised by Peter Franco, about the middle of the 16th century. It consisted in pushing the stone above the pubis by the fingers introduced into the rectum. Rousset afterwards proposed to make the bladder rise above the pubis by injecting it. The method had fallen into discredit, when Frere Come revived it. It is used when the calculus is very large. It was practised by opening first the membranous part of the urethra upon the catheter passed into the canal. Through this incision, the Sonde a) dard — a species of catheter, having a spearpointed stilet — was introduced into the bladder. An incision was then made into the linea alba, above the symphysis pubis, of about four or five fingers' breadth, and the peritoneum detached to avoid wounding it. The stilet was pushed through the bladder, and used as a director for the knife, with which the bladder was divided anteriorly, as far as the neck ; and the stone extracted. It was performed in England by Douglass, in 1719, and since by others, with various) modifications.

4. The Lateral Operation, Hypoeyatroto'nfia9 Cyntotom'ia latera'lia, Cyatauehenotom'ia, 6j**o

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trachclotom' iat Urethrocyttauchenotom' ia, Uretkrocytteotrachelotom'ia, Sec'tio latera'ltt, Appara'tut latera'ltt, (F.) Appnreil lateralisf, so named from the prostate gland and neck of the bladder being cat laterally, was probably invented by Peter Franco. It was introduced into France by Frere Jacques de Beaulieu. He performed it with rude instruments, invented by Himself, and improved by the suggestions of some ot the Parisian surgeons. In England, it received its earliest and most important improvements from the celebrated Cheselden. It is the method practised at the present day, according to different modes of procedure. In this method, the patient is placed upon a table ; his legs and thighs are bent and separated; the hands being tied to the feet. The perm re urn is then shaved, and a staff is introduced into the bladder; the handle being turned towards tfee right groin of the patient. An oblique incision is now made from the raphe to the middle of a line drawn from the anus to the tuberosity of the ischium of the left side; and taking the staff for a guide, the integuments, areolar tissue of the perinseum, membranous portion of the urethra, transversus perinaei muscle, bulbo-cavernosus, some fibres of the levator ani, the prostate and neek of the bladder, are successively divided. For this latter part of the operation, the knife, the beaked bistoury, Bittouri ou Lithotome Cachi, cutting gorget, <tc, is used, according to the particular preference. The forceps are now introduced into the bladder, and the stone extracted. In the operation, care must be taken not to injure the rectum, or the great arterial vessel?, distributed to the perineum.

A variety of the Lateral Apparatus, called by the French AppartU lattral, consisted in cutting into the bat-fond of the bladder, without touching the neck of that organ: but it was soon abandoned, on account of its inconveniences.

The method of Le Cat and of Pajola—Urethroeysteo-aneurysmatotom'ia — consists in dividing the prostate in part only, — the enlargement of the wound being effected by a peculiar dilator.

The Bilateral Operation is founded on that of Celsua. It consists in making an incision posterior to the bulb of the urethra, and anterior to the anus, involving both sides of the perinseum by crossing the raphe at right angles: an incision Is then made through the membranous part of the urethra, and the prostate may be cut bilaterally, either with the double lithotome of Dupuytren, or the prostatic bisector of Dr. Stevens, of New York.

5. Lithotomy by the Rectum, Proctocystotomy ia, Sec'tio recto-vesica'It's, (F.) Taille par la Rectum, Taillc potte'rieure, T. Recto-vSsicaU. This was proposed by Vegetius in the 16th century; but it Was never noticed until M. Sanson, in the year 1817, attracted attention to it; since which time St has been successfully performed in many instances. It consists in penetrating the bladder through the paries corresponding with the rectum, by first cutting the sphincter ani and rectum about the root of the penis, and penetrating the bladder by the neck of that organ, dividing the prostate,—or by its bat-fond.

Lithotomy in women, from the shortness of the urethra, is a comparatively insignificant operation.

Lithotomy nr The Rbctum, see Lithotomy—1. by the Vagina, see Lithotomy.

LITHOTRESIS, Lithotrity.

LITHOTRIPSY, Lithotrity.

LITHOTRIPSY, Lithotrity.

LITHOTRIPTORS, see Lithotrity.

LITUOTRITES, see Lithotrity. . LtTHOTRITEURS, see Lithotrity.

LITHOTRITOR, see Lithotrity.

LITHOT'RITY, Lithotri'tia, Lithotryp*yt Lithotripsy, Ltthothrip'ty, Lithothrypsis, Lithotre'tit, Lithotriptit, Lithoceno'tit, Lithodxal'ytitf Lithoprim'e, from AtSoj, 'a stone/ and rpt&m, 'I break.' The operation of breaking or bruising the stone in the bladder. It has been performed, of late years, with success, by French, and, after them, by English and American surgeons. The instruments employed for this purpose are called, in the abstract, Litkotritct, Lithotriteurt, Lithofritort, Lithotriptort, and Lithothryptors. The most celebrated are those of Civiale, Jacobson, Heurteloup and Weiss. See Brise-Pierre artieule\ and Percuteur d Marteau.

LITHOXIDU'RIA, from Xiflof, 'a stone/ oxide, and ovpov, ' urine/ The discharge of urine containing lit hie or zanthio oxide.

LITHU'RIA. Lithiu'ria, Lithourorrhfe (PIorry;) from Xidot, 'a stone/ and ovpov, * urine.* Lithic Diath'etit, Lithic Acid Diathesit. The condition of the system and of the urine in which, deposits of lithic acid and the lithates — Lithw tedimentt—take place from the urine. See Urine.

LITHUS, Calculus.

LITMUS, Lichen roccella.

LITRA, Pound.

LITRE, Litra. A measure containing a cubed decimetre, which is equal nearly to 2.1135 pints. The ancients gave the name litra, Xtrpa, to a measure capable of containing 16 ounces of liquid.

LITS.EA CUBEBA, Piper cubeba— 1. Piperita, Piper cubeba.

LITUS, Liniment

LIvilCHE, Ligusticum levisticum.

LIVER, Sax. lipen» Hepar, Jecur, Jcc"inu9) (F.) Foie. The liver is the largest gland in the body. It is an azygous organ; unsymmetrical; very heavy; and of a brownish-red colour; occupying the whole of the right hypochondrium, and a part of the epigastrium. Above, it corresponds to the diaphragm ; below, to the stomach, transverse colon, and right kidney; behind, to the vertebral column, aorta, and vena cava; and before, to the base of the chest Its upper surface is convex; the lower, irregularly convex and concave, so that anatomists hare divided the organ into three lobes, — a large or right or eolio lobe; a, letter lobe, lobule, or inferior tote, the Lobntut Spigelii,—and a middle or left lobe. At its inferior surface, arc observed: — 1. A Sulcus or Furrow or Fissure, called horizontal or longitudinal, Great fitture, Fotta Umbilica'Ut, (F.) Sillon horizontal, longitudinal, S. de la veine on. bilieale, Sulcut antero-potterior Jee'orit, S. hot izontn'lit Jee'orit, S. tongitudina'lis Jeeorit, S* tinit'ter Jeeorit, S. I'mbilica'lit, which lodges, in the foetus, the umbilical vein and ductus venosua. 2. The Principal Fitture, termed Sulcut Transversa vel Sinus Porta'rum, Fissure of the Vena porta, Portal Fitture, (F.) Sillon transrertat on de la veine porte, which receives the sinus of the vena porta. 3. The Fitture of the Vena Cava infe'rior, Sillon la veine cave inffrieure, situate at the posterior margin of the organ, and lodging the vena cava inferior. 4. The Lohulus Spige'lii, or posterior portal eminence. 5. The anterior portal eminence, Auri'ga vel Lobuhit anon'ymus. 6. Depressions corresponding to the upper surface of the stomach, gall-bladder, arch of the oolon, right kidney, Ac. Continued from the fo?sn umbilicalis is a small fossa, called Fosta Duettos Te~ no'ti, between the left lobe and Lobulus SpigetU, The posterior margin of the liver is very thick; much more so than the anterior. The liver u surrounded by a serous or peritoneal covering

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