destroyed. But the Indians were now wasted; they had no hope. Internal dissension arose. Some surrendered, many more were killed, and the disgraceful fact rennii.'s that large numbers of them were sold as slaves to South America and West Indies. Philip was chased from one retreat to another. He returned to Mount Hope with a few followers, and secreted himself in a swamp, where he was shot by a renegade of his own tribe while attempting an escape from an attacking party. His child and squaw were sold as slaves in Bermuda. Thus the war ended, though troubles continued for two years more in New Hampshire and Maine. Philip's body was quartered, and his head taken to Plymouth, to be exposed on a gibbet for twenty years. Of the Narragansetts, a once mighty nation, scarcely a hundred remained. In the Massachusetts Historical Society's rooms are shown King Philip's samp bowl, the lock of the gun with which he was killed and other relics. The Rhode Island Historical Society fittingly celebrated the 200th anniversary of his death in 1876, and the following year erected a monument to his memory near the spot where he fell. The obloquy that for so many years attached to his name was in many respects unjust, since, as it now appears, he endured the encroachments of the white settlers until literally goaded to exasperation. One writer says, justly: "The story of Philip has been variously told; some looking upon him as a crafty savage, loving the wiles and cruelty of Indian warfare and fighting with no other object than immediate success: others, as a patriot, contending for the independence of his country. In either case, if we judge him by the standards of his own people, he was a great ruler and a valiant leader in war." The date of his death was Aug. 12, 1676.

PAYSON, Edward, clergyman, was born at Rindge, N. H., Jan. 25, 1783, son of Rev. Seth Payson, pastor of the Congregational church. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1803; had charge of a school in Portland, Me., for three years, and then studied divinity under his father; was settled over the second parish church (Congregational) about 1808, and remained until his death, declining calls to large churches in New York and Boston. His beautiful character and the spirituality of his preaching made a profound impression upon the people among whom he lived, and so great was his reputation for saintliness that scoresof children were named after him. His sermons, published in 1859, in three volumes, were widely circulated, both in this country aud Great Britain. He received the title of D.D. from Bowdoin College in 1821. Dr. Payson died in Portland. Me., Oct. 22, 1827.

PERRY, Horatio Justus, secretary of legation to Spain, was born at Keene, N. H., Jan. 23, 1824, son of Gen. Justus and Mary (Edwards) Perry. He was educated at Keene and at Walpole, N. H., and graduated at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., in 1844. After this he studied at the Harvard Law School for three years. His health failing him, he went South, and later, having recovered, at the breaking out of the Mexican war he became aid de-camp on Gen. Shields' staff, and was present at the bombardment of Vera Cruz. In October, 1849, he was appointed by Pres. Taylor secretary of legation to Spain, Gen. Barriuger, of North Carolina, being minister. Mr. Perry continued in Madrid under Mr. Pierre Soule until 1855, when both minister and secretary were recalled. During these years Mr. Perry was frequently called upon to act as charge d'affaires in the absence of his superior, and did great service. After this he entered into submarine telegraph projects, being associated with many prominent Englishmen and Americans. He projected the vast system of lines reaching through all the principal West Indian islands and connecting the

North and South American continents. He received the rights of way granted him in 1859 by the Spanish government through Isabella; but on account of the revolution later and her banishment from the throne he never received remuneration for his services. At the beginning of our civil war he was again appointed charge d'affaires, and was entrusted to set our relations right with Spain, and his successful work in this direction gave "greatestsatisfaction" to Pres. Lincoln. From the time of his re-appointment, in 1861, until 1865 Mr. Perry was virtually minister more than half of the time. He was instrumental in getting Spain to sign a proclamation of neutrality. His diplomatic career ended in 1869; but he continued to reside in Madrid. He finally removed to Lisbon, Portugal. He was married, in 1852, to Carolina Coronado, of Badajos, the poet-laureate of Spain. Mr. Perry died in Lisbon, Feb. 21, 1891, survived by his wife and one daughter.

WRIGHT, Sophie Bell, educator, was born in New Orleans, La.. June 5, 1866, daughter of William II. and Mary (Bell) Wright, of Scotch descent. Her father was a soldier in the Confederate army and, like so many others, sacrificed everything for the cause. The subject of this sketch was educated in the public schools of New Orleans and, being graduated at the high school, in 1882, at once entered on her life work of teaching. She soon realized the necessity for education among the poorer classes, and started a night class, which has nodiplomas, no roll of honor, nor graduating exercises, the only requisite being honest poverty. This has been a success from the first. Beginning with twenty men and boys who could neither read nor write, and who worked hard all day for those dependent upon them, the number constantly increased,until the free night school now numbers over one thousand pupils. Miss Wright at times is a great sufferer, having met with an accident in early childhood, and often she has to be taken into the school-room in an invalid's chair, propped up with pillows. She is also president of the Home Institute, a day and boarding-school for young ladies, with about 200 pupils and twenty teachers. She is a prominent member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and was largely instrumental in the establishment of the Upper Bethel Mission Sabbath-school. She has been president of the Woman's Club of New Orleans and the Local Council of Women, and participates constantly and actively in the work of the King's Daughters, as well as in the Charity Organization Society. Her life is an example of what a frail, delicate woman can accomplish for the good of the world.

HODGE, Frederick Webb, ethnologist, was born in Plymouth, Devon, England,Oct. 28, 1864. He came to the United States when seven years of age, and was educated in the public schools and at Columbian University, at Washington, D. O, but was not graduated. He entered the U. S. geological survey, 1884, and resigned two years later to become secretary of the Hemenway archaeological expedition, which excavated ancient ruins of Arizona and Mexico, until July, 1889. Returning to Washington, he entered the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, and has since been engaged in editing its publications, in acting as its librarian and in compiling a "Cyclopedia of Indian Tribes." He conducted further researches among the Indians of Arizona and New Mexico, in 1895 and 1897, in the latter year successfully scaling the precipitous " Enchanted Mesa," of New Mexico, where he found evidencesof former human occupancy. Mr. Hodge has been an associate editor of the "American Anthropologist" for a number of years; is now managing editor of the new series" of that journal, and has contributed largely to scientific periodicals.


BUTLER, Edward Burgess, merchant, was born at Lewiston, Androscoggin co., Me., Dec. 16, 1853, son of Manly Orville and Elizabeth (Howe) Butler. His parents were both natives of New Hampshire and representatives of the colonial stock of New England. Educated in the public schools of Boston, he spent his time, between school hours, assisting in his father's store, and at the age of sixteen he was employed in a wholesale dry-goods house in Boston. After six years' experience as a bundle boy, packer, entry clerk and traveling salesman, Mr. Butler founded, with his brother, George II., the now famous house of Butler Brothers, dealers at that time in notions and small wares. Their brother, Charles H. Butler, joined the firm in the following year, and the business rapidly grew to large proportions through their combined energy and attentiveness. The real foundation of their prosperity, however, was the "five cent counter" plan, a commercial innovation introduced in January, 1878. Retail merchants adopted the idea with eagerness, and for several years Butler Brothers did an immense business in furnishing goods for such counters. Out of the "five cent counter" idea has grown the now almost universal " department store," and the business of Butler Brothers to-day is in supplying goods for these stores. Instead of the usual method of employing a large force of commercial travelers. Butler Brothers sent out none. They have built up their trade by the circulation of a complete catalogue, entitled "Our Drummer," in mailing which they have in a single year expended as much as $40,000 for postage alone. Butler Brothers became a corporation in 1887. His brother, George H., died in 1880; Charles H. died nine years later, so that he is now the sole representative of the original firm, the president of the corporation and the active manager of the business, residing in Chicago. Butler Brothers now have houses in New York, Chicago and St. Louis, and do an aggregate annual business of about $10,000,000. They sell exclusively to merchants, dealing in every variety of article.except food, and are extensive exporters to nearly all parts of the world. 'These gratifying results are largely due to the executive ability of Mr. Butler, who has been a potent factor in numerous other important enterprises, both public and benevolent. He gave up almost his entire time for two years to his official duties as chairman of the ways and means committee and chairman of the department of admissions and collections of the Columbian exposition. For a number of years he has been president of the Illinois Manual Training School Farm, at Glenwood, 111. He is also a trustee of the Hull House Social Settlement; Chicago Orphan Asylum ; Erring Woman's Refuge; Chicago Atheuseum; Rockford College; Bureau of Associated Charities, and a director of the Corn Exchange National Bank. He is a member of the Union League, Chicago, Fellowship, Commercial and Merchants' clubs, of Chicago. He is a con


noisseur of art and an enthusiastic collector, having one of the finest private galleries of paintings in Chicago, and also a remarkably complete cabinet of civil war and revolutionary autograph letters and documents. Mr. Butler was married, in 1880, to Jane, daughter of Wm, Henry and Esther (Piatt) Holly, of Norwalk, Conn., a lady of rare attainments.

LOWE, Martha (Perry), author, was born at Keene, Cheshire co., N. H, Nov. 21, 1829, daughter of Gen. Justus Perry, of Keene, and Hannah Ward, of Concord, Mass., both of whom died in her early youth. Her brother, Horatio Justus Perry, was for many years U. S. secretary of legation in Spain. Miss Perry was first educated at the public schools of Keene, and afterward at the celebrated school of Mrs. Charles Sedgwick, at Lenox, Mass. She also spent two years in Boston in studying music. Subsequently she spent a winter in the West India islands and another in Spain, whither she went with a sister to visit her brother, who was residing in Madrid On her return she began to make notes of her experience, and found that her reminiscences all took a poetic form, and she soon had a little collection of poems ready for the press. She turned her attention then to simple New England life and wrote poems illustrative of the scenes in her native place. She was married, in 1857, to the Rev. Charles Lowe, of Exeter, N. H.,who had been settled in New Bedford and Salem, Mass.; but being out of health, the newly married pair went onto a farm for a year or two, living a delightful rural life. Here, under the encouragement of her husband, Mrs. Lowe published her first volume, "The Olive and the Pine; or, Spain and New England" (1859). Later (1807) she published a volume, entitled "Love in Spain and Other Poems," being verse relating to the civil war in her own country. Her husband, beside doing parish work, was very active in the war, going to the southern states several times as an army chaplain. Afterward he accepted a position as chief secretary of the American Unitarian Association, Boston, and filled a very important part as chairman of the Freedmcu's bureau of education during and after the war. Mrs. Lowe's war poems appeared in many journals, and she wrote, by request, poems for the local press and for various occasions. One of these, composed by invitation of the city authorities of Somerville, she read in the great tent at the Grand Army veterans' gathering in Massachusetts. Mrs. Lowe's husband died in 1874. He was then editor of a religious and literary review. She took up a department of his work then, and after continuing it for some years gave it up, and had a current religious and literary department in the Boston "Daily Transcript." She prepared, by request, a memoir of her husband, which met with a warm reception; and next published (1881) a little book, entitled "The Story of Chief Joseph," being a poetic versification of his celebrated speech before the council of white men whose agents had driven him from his lands to the Indian Territory. Her next volume was an illustrated poem, "Bessie Grey" which was followed in 1899 by a collection of poems published especially for Easter time, and entitled "The Immortals." The last was cordially received, more particularly in New England. Mrs. Lowe resides at Somerville, Mass., near two married daughters, contributing from time to time poems to the press and interesting herself in the religious and educational work of the city.

CROSBY, Peirce, rear-admiral, was born in Chester, Pa., Jan. 16, 1824. His first American ancestor, Richard Crosby, purchased a tract of land from William Penn, and went from England to Pennsylvania in 1682, settling in Delaware county. Adm. Crosby was educated at a private school until he was appointed a midshipman in the navy, on June 5, 1838. He first went to sea on board the Ohio when she joined the Mediterranean squadron and became the flagship of the old hero, Com. Isaac Hull. He served as a midshipman on the Mississippi, home station; also on the frigate Congress, and sloop-of-war Preble in the Mediterranean squadron; as a passed midshipman on the U. 8. coast survey, on coast of Massachusetts and Rhode Island; also on Susquehanua river and tributaries; also in the Mexican war, on board the Decatur; also as acting master and executive officer of the gunboat Petrel. He took part in the capture of Tuxpau and Tobasco, Mexico; when peace was declared he was in command of the gunboat Petrel, and took her to New York; the captain and other officers were too sick for duty. He was ordered to the store-ship Relief, and carried supplies to the Cape de Verde islands and to the Mediterranean squadron at Naples, Italy; was acting master of the U. 8. navy yard, Philadelphia; lieutenant and executive officer on board the Germantown, on the south Atlantic station, and lieutenant and executive officer on the Saratoga, in the gulf of Mexico. He took charge of a detachment of men to protect the American consul at Minatitlan, Mexico, in 1860; was stationed at Philadelphia navy yard, Adm. Du Pont commanding. When Fort Sumter was attacked Lieut. Crosby was sent with a detachment of men, under command of Capt. Steed man, to Havre de Grace, to keep open communication between Perryville and Annapolis, and to carry troops and supplies to the army, as the railroads and bridges were destroyed between that place and Baltimore; from there was ordered to the steamship Cumberland, Hampton Roads; was detached from duty with the army to police Chesapeake bay and tributaries, and, by direction of the commanding general, captured and destroyed a large number of small craft, in order to prevent supplies being carried to the enemy; conveyed troops to and fro across the river to the tight at Big Bethel. He took the canal-boat Fanny to Hatteras inlet, on the south coast of Cape Hatteras, in order to navigate shallow waters and to superintend the lauding of Gen. Butler's command. When the naval vessels commenced bombarding the forts at that place, he landed about 320 men through the heavy surf, which eventually wrecked all the boats employed iu carrying the men from the transports. On the following morning the naval vessels silenced the forts, which hoisted the white flag. Lieut. Crosby went on board the Fanny, and, by Gen. Butler's orders, landed at the forts and brought off Comr. Barron and other officers in command, who surrendered, with 730 men. to Adm. Stringham and Butler on board the flagship Wabash. Lieut. Crosby captured four blockade-runners at this port: was ordered north, to take command of the gunboat Pembina; was detached, on account of sickness caused by exposure, and sent to the New York Hospital. When recovered he was ordered to command the Piuola, fitting out at Baltimore, and took her to Washington for her guns: when ready, sailed down the Potomac, passing the Confederate batteries in the night, and proceeded to Ship island, there reporting to Adm. Farragut for duty. Proceeding thence to the Mississippi river, he assisted the fleet over the bar,and participated in the fight at Fort Jacksou and Fort St. Philip, the capture of theChalmctte batteries and New Orleans city; also in the attack and passage of the Vicksburg batteries and the right with the Confederate ram Arkansas. He next convoyed vessels on the Mississippi river. In the attack on Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip he participated with the mortar flotilla. The night before the passage of these forts the Pinola, together with the Itasca, went up to destroy the barrier chain,


which was supported by hulks across the river, running from Fort Jackson to the bank just below Fort St. Philip. Lieut. Crosby boarded one of the hulks near Fort Jackson and placed torpedoes on the chains; but the electric batteries failed to explode the torpedoes. A second attempt was being made, when news came that the Itasca had slipped the chain cable on the opposite shore, and was aground hard and fast. Crosby went to the assistance of the gunboat, and worked until nearly daylight, when he succeeded in getting her afloat, and in doing this he passed well above the barrier chain, near to Fort St. Philip, which showed that the channel was open. The next night the squadron passed the forts under a terrific fire. After Adm. Farragut and squadron left the Mississippi river, Crosby joined the blockade off Mobile; was then ordered to join as fleet captain the north Atlantic squadron, under Adm. A. P. Lee. At his request, he was ordered to the command of the Florida on the blockade off Wilmington, destroyed two blockade - runners, and assisted in destroying two others. He was detached and or-' dered to command the Keystone State on the off shore blockade; captured five blockade-runners aud a large quantity of cotton which the vessels threw overboard in order to escape; was then ordered to the Metacomet for blockade off Galveston, Tex., and then to blockade Mobile. Adm. Thatcher and Gen. Canby attacked the forts at Mobile. The naval vessels were prevented for a week from getting within range of the fort, on account of torpedoes which destroyed two iron clads. Crosby volunteered, and with drag nets removed 140 torpedoes from the channel, which enabled the naval vessels to compel the evacuation of the fort and city. Peace was soon declared, and Comr. Crosby was ordered to take the Metacomet to Philadelphia, where she was put out of commission. He was then ordered to the command of the Shamokiu, south Atlantic squadron, where he served three years. He took the American minister, C. A. Washburn, to Paraguay, which was at that time at war with Brazil. The Brazilian admiral, Temandera, refused to allow him to take the minister through the blockade, whereupon Crosby said that his orders from his admiral were to take Mr. Washburn to Paraguay, and that he intended to carry out those orders, unless he was overcome by force; whereupon the Brazilian admiral, under much excitement, allowed him toproceed under protest. Comr. Crosby soon after this was promoted to a captaincy, and ordered home; was stationed at Norfolk and Philadelphia navy yards; subsequently was in command of the U. S. ship Powhatan, on the home station, foreighteen months, and then was executive officer of the Washington navy yard over six months. Promoted to commodore, Oct. 3, 1874, he was detached from Washington navy yard and put on waiting orders. Then he was commander of the League island navy yard over three years; detached and placed on waiting orders; was promoted to rear-admiral March 10, 1882, and ordered to command the south Atlantic station. Alter serving there over one year, he was ordered to command the Asiatic station. On Oct. 29, 1893. he was retired from active service, at his own request. He died in Washington, I). C, June 15, 1899. MILLARD, Frank Bailey, author, was born at Markesan, Lake CO., Wis., Oct. 2, 18">9, son of George Shermr.n and Pha'be (Janet) Millard, who were natives of New York. His father, who was a miller, removed, in 1807, to Minnesota, where Bailey Millard was educated at the State Normal School. He worked as a printer in the office of the St. Peter "Tribune," also in that of the "Pioneer Press," of St. Paul; but in 1880 went to San Francisco and found employment as a compositor in the office of the "Alta." He left the compositor's place to become a reporter; in 1883 was made assistant city editor of the "Chronicle"; next was city editor of the "Call"; in 1894 became city editor of the "Examiner," and afterward was night-editor and news editor of that newspaper He has been literary editor of the "Examiner" since 1895. He is now (1899) editor of the "Sunday Examiner," and literary editor as well. He began writing short stories and sketches at the age of eighteen and has published more than 100 original tales. The first to excite particular commendation was "On the Caliente Trail," which appeared in the San Francisco "Argonaut," in 1892, and was widely copied. He has published one book, "She of the West," a collection of short stories, most of which appeared in periodicals, including those published by the Harpers, and the "New England Magazine." "Thebook," said the "Mail and Express," "contains many picturesque studies of western humanity, the author telling in turn of the girl gold finder, the big-hearted miner, the courageous desert guide, the bad Indian and other types of living frontier folk. . . The stories are written with the ease of a practiced literary hand, but have the deeper value of being from one who is of the land he paints, and who possesses keen appreciation of his subject." Mr. Millard was married, at Napa, Cal.. in 1883, to Martha, daughter of Horatio and Mary E. Hawkins. They have two children. His home, at Larkspur, on the hills overlooking San Francisco, is described as a model of architecture. PAINE, Halbert Eleazer. lawyer and congressman, was born at Chardou, Geauga co., O., Feb. 4, 1826, son of Eleazer and Jane Caroline (Hoyt) Paine. His father (1796-1833), a native of East Windsor, Conn., was formany years a merchant in Ohio; his mother wasadaughter of Noah Hoyt (1767-1850), a native of Danbury, Conn., and an iron founder by occupation. His family descends from Stephen Paine, a native of Hiugliam, England,who emigrated to Hingham, Mass., in 16i>8. and in 1643 removed to Seekonk (now Rehoboth), Mass., where he died in 1679. His great-grandfather, Stephen Paine,5th,of East Windsor, Conn., was a captain in the revolution, and his grandfather, Eleazer Paine, 1st, served as drummer boy in his father's company, and died in Ohio. By the maternal line he descends from Simon Hoyt(d. 1657), who landed at Salem, Mass , about 1629. Halbert E. Paine was educated in the schools of his native town, and was graduated at Western Reserve University in 1845. He read law in the office of Hitchcock, Wilson & Wade, at Cleveland. O., where he practiced until his removal to Milwaukee, Wis., in 1857. On the outbreak of the civil war he enlisted as colonel of the 4th Wisconsin regiment, which served with the army of the Gulf. He was placed in command of a brigade in October, 1861, and promoted brigadier-general in January, 1863. In April, 1863, he was made commander of the 3d division, 19th army corps, and as such participated in the assault on Fort Hudson,


where he lost a leg, June 14, 1863. He was brevetted major-general on his discharge from the service. In November, 1864, he was elected representative in congress from the Milwaukee district, and served six years. In 1878-80 he was U. S. commissioner of patents. Since the close of his congressional term Mr. Paine has continued in the practice of law in Washington, D. C. He is the author of one work, "Paine on Elections" (1880), which is recognized as a valuable text-book on the subject. While in congress he framed and secured the passage of the bill organizing the U. S. signal service. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion. Mr. Paine was married, Sept. 10, 1850, to Eliza Leeworthy, daughter of Harvey Brigham, of Windham, O. She is a descendant of Thomas Brigham (1603-53). who came to Massachusetts in 1635.

ALLEN, Alexander Viets Griswold, educator and author, was born at Otis, Berkshire co., Mass., May 4, 1841, son of Ethan and Lydia Child (Burr) Allen. The first American ancestor on the maternal side was Jonathan Burr, associate pastor of the First Church of Dorchester, Mass. (1640). His father, Ethan Allen,of Londonderry, Vt., took part in the war of 1812, and was afterward an Episcopal clergyman. Alexander V. G. Allen was educated in the schools of his native place; was graduated at Kenvon College, Gambier, O., 1862, atal at Andover Theological Seminary in 1865. In this same year he was ordained a priest in the Protestant Episcopal church. After two years of post-graduate study at Andover, and of service as rector of St. John's. Lawrence, Mass., he was called to the chair of ecclesiastical history in the Episcopal Theological School of Cambridge, Mass., where he has since remained. During 1871 he was the editor of the "Christian Witness," and in 1883 delivered theBohlen lectures in Philadelphia, which were afterward published in a volume, entitled "The Continuity of Christian Thought." He also published a "Life of Jonathan Edwards" (1889); "Religious Progress" (1893); "Christian Institutions" (1898), for the International Theological Library; "Lifeof Phillips Brooks (2 vols.. 1900)." He received the degree of D.D. from Harvard University at its 250th anniversary, in 1886, and in the same year was made a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Dr. Allen was married in Cambridge, Mass.,in 1872, to Elizabeth Kent, daughter of Rev. Dr. John S. Stone, and granddaughter of Chancellor Kent. They have two sons, Henry Van Dyke and John Stone.

MASON, Charles, astronomer, was born in England about 1730, and was an assistant of James Bradley at Greenwich Observatory in 1756-60. Of the early life of Jeremiah Dixon, who then became his associate, nothing is known, a story to the effect that he was born in a coal mine not having been authenticated. Mason and Dixon were selected by the Royal Astronomical Society in 1760 to observe the transit of Venus (June 6, 1761) at Bencoolen, Sumatra, but owing to various delays they got no further than the Cape of Good Hope. Having made observations there, they returned to England, stopping on the way at St. Helena, where Mason and Nevil Maskelyne collected tidal data. In 1763 Mason and Dixon were sent for by the heirs of William Penn and Lord Baltimore to settle by a survey the long-standing dispute over the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland. They arrived at Philadelphia Nov. 15th, and took up their work in Decern ber, beginning at the northeast corner of Maryland and proceeding along the parallel of latitude 39° 43' 26.3" N. In November, 1767, they had completed all but thirty-six miles of the 280, and

then were compelled by the hostility of the Indians to return to Philadelphia. At the end of every fifth mile was set a stone, brought from England, bearing the arms of Penu on one side and those of Lord Baltimore on the other; the intermediate miles being designated by smaller stones, with the initials M. and P. on opposite sides. In November, 1782, the survey was completed to the southwest corner of Pennsylvania by Col. Alexander McLean, of Pennsylvania, and Joseph Neville, of Virginia, and in 1784 their work was tested and corrected by astronomical observations and permanently marked. The surveys of the line were revised in 1849. and were found to be substantially correct. "Mason and Dixon's line" became the popular name for the boundary between the free and slave states, including those west of Maryland and Pennsylvania; properly it belongs only to the southern boundary of the latter state. While in Pennsylvania Mason and Dixon undertook other work at the expense of the Royal Society. In 1764 they measured an arc of the meridian in mean latitude 39° 12', and the results, which were not satisfactory, were published in Vol. LVIII. of the society's "Transactions." In 1766 they observed the variations of gravity from Greenwich, part of a lunar eclipse and some immersions of Jupiter's satellites. In 1768 Mason was elected a correspouding member of the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Although discharged from service as surveyors, Dec. 26,1767, they did not return to England until Sept. 9, 1768, at which date they embarked at New York city. In 1769 Mason was employed by the Royal Society to observe the transit of Venus, at Cavan, Ireland, and in 1773 to make observations in the Highlands. He made a catalogue of 387 stars, calculated from Bradley's observations, and corrected the lunar tables of Tobias Mayer for the board of longitude in 1772, 1778 and 1780. The final revision of these tables was published in 1787, after his death. Dixou died in Durham, England, in 1777. Mason returned to Pennsylvania, and died in Philadelphia in February, 1787. The journal kept by him in this country was discovered in 1860 in the cellar of the government house at Halifax, N. S.

BEXFORD, Eben Eugene, author, was born at Johnsburg, Warren Co., N. Y., July 16, 1848, son of Jabez and Rebecca (Wilcox) Rexford, natives of New York. His parents removed to Ellington, Wis., when he was about eight years of age. His literary ability began to show itself when he was but fourteen, a poem written at that age appearing in t lie New York "Weekly." When he was seventeen he received his first payment for literary work from Frank Leslie, of New York city, to whose periodical he contributed until the editor's death. He earned enough by writing to pay his way through Lawrence University, Applcton, Wis., and when his school days were over he settled at Shiocton, Wis., to make literature his profession. He is a contributor of prose and verse to Harpers' publications; to "Lippincott's Magazine"; "New England Magazine"; "Youth's Companion"; "Advance"; "Congregationalist"; "Outlook"; Springfield "Republican"; Boston "Transcript"; "Independent," and many other periodicals. He has been for ten years floricultural editor of the "Ladies' Home Journal," and is considered an authority on all matters pertaining to flowers and their culture. Mr. Rexford has written many poems, which have been set to music. "Silver Threads Among the Gold" had a phenomenal popularity; "Only a Pansy Blossom" was remarkably successful, and "Come, Sit By My Side, Little Darling" has held its own against newcomers in the world of song for more than a score of years. He has published "Home Floriculture" (1886); "A Work About Bulbs "(1890); "Flowers: HowtoGrow Them" (1898); "Grandmother's Garden," illus- trated poem (1887); "Brother and Lover," poem of the civil war (1899), and a collection of miscellaneous poems in 1900. Mr. Rexford was married at Shiocton, Dec. 20, 1892, to Harriet, daughter of Carl and Anna Bauman. ^

REED, Henry Gooding, manufacturer, was born at Taunton, Mass., July 23, 1810, son of John and Rebecca (Gooding) Reed. He is descended in the seventh generation from William Reade. who was a passenger in the ship L'Assurance de Lo, from Gravesend, England, to the new country in 1635, and settled in Weymouth, Mass. His family, whose name is spelled variously Reade, Rede, Reid, Read and Reed, traces its lineage to the time of William the Conqueror. Henry G. Reed received his education in the public schools and the Bristol Academy in Taunton, assisting his father, who was a dry-goods merchant, during vacations. In the endeavor to choose a congenial employment, his unusual mechanical ability led him to try boat-building, cabinet-making and organ-building, and when eighteen years of age he entered the shop of Babbitt & Crossman, britanniaworkers, as apprentice. With that firm and their successors, Crossman, West & Leonard, and the Taunton Britannia Manufacturing Co. (incorporated in 1830) he continued, being soon promoted to the office of superintendent. In 1835, when the company was obliged to suspend operations, the managing agent contracted with Mr. Reed and Charles E. Barton, another apprentice of Babbitt & Crossman, and an expert workman in the employ of the Taunton Britannia Manufacturing Co., to continue the business. In 1837 Messrs. Reed and Barton entered into partnership with Gustavus Leonard, who had been previously engaged in iron manufacturing at East Taunton, and the new firm purchased the factory, stock and good-will of the Taunton Manufacturing Co., continuing the business under the style of Leonard, Reed & Barton; Mr. Leonard attending to financial affairs and his partners to the manufacturing. On Mr. Leonard's death, in 1844, Henry H. Fish, of Fall River, purchased the interest of his heirs, becoming a special partner in the firm, under the style of Reed & Barton, which still continues. In 1865 Mr. Fish assumed active relations with the business, which continued until his death in 1882. Also, in 1859, George Brabrook, a former employee, was admitted to partnership. On Mr. Barton's death, in 1867, the interest of his heirs was purchased by the remaining partners, and the business continued under the same firm name. In 1888 it was incorporated with the same title, having grown from small beginnings to a business of large proportions and world-wide reputation; one of the very few firms in the United States which had survived the financial crises of over fifty years. For some years the staple of Reed & Barton's manufacture was britannia metal, made by the formula used by Isaac Babbitt (of Babbitt it Crossman), who was also the inventor of the so-called Babbitt metal, used for the bearings of machinery to diminish friction. The manufacture of britannia ware, with some modifications of the original formula, has always been an important department of their work; but when a demand arose for silver-plated ware of American make, Reed & Barton determined to enter the field. The Sheffield rolled or fire-plate, made by welding two thin films of silver upon a sheet of copper, the invention of Thomas Bolsover and another

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