had subverted the antient and first foundation thereof, and must tend to the discouragement of the natives of this kingdom, and is a general grievance." They were passed in the Provostship of William Chappel, whose conduct, as displayed in the charges against him before the Irish Parliament, exhibits a notable instance of the errors into which pious and learned men may fall, when entrusted with the uncontrolled and secret management of funds committed to their care for the purposes of education. He had been a Fellow of Christ Church, Cambridge, for twenty-seven years, and had, amongst his pupils there, the poet Milton, and Dr. Henry More, who writes of him as a " learned, vigilant, skilful, prudent, and pious preceptor." This Chappel was an extraordinary master of logic, and no one would dispute with him, for he was accustomed almost to kill his respondents. At a commencement in Cambridge, in the presence of King James I., " Dr. Eoberts, of Trinity College, being respondent in St. Maries, this Mr. Chappel opposed him so close and subtilely, that the Doctor, not being able to unloose the arguments, fell into a swounding in the pulpit, so as the King, to hold up the commencement, undertook to maintain the thesis, which Mr. Chappel, by his syllogisms, prest so home, ut rex palam gratias ageret deo, quod opponens ei fuisset subditus, non alteri; alias potuisset in suspicionem adduci perinde throno suo atque cathedro submoveri debuisset."1 He was

1 Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, p. 158.

appointed to the Provostship in 1634, being the last Provost who was elected by the Fellows. It is difficult to ascertain the precise circumstances which attended his case before the House of Commons in 1640-41.' We have nothing to guide our inquiries, but the meagre journals of the House, which appears to have exercised a most unconstitutional authority in repealing laws made by the Fellows before that power was taken from them, and in issuing orders for the times and modes of elections to the offices of the University. In the inquiry before them, one of their first proceedings, February 27, 1640, was to repeal a statute passed by Chappel's influence—" That if any student or member of that society shall offer to exhibit any complaint concerning the misgovernment, or least grievance of the said house, to any other than the Provost and Fellows of the same, that he or they so complaining shall forthwith be suspended or expulsed." From the obscurity of these words we can scarcely ascertain whether this law be part of the charter of Charles I. or not. If it were not, it is difficult to say which party acted the more illegally—the Fellows in passing this law, which abolished the authority of the visitors, given by the original charter, or the parliament in repealing it. The principal charges against the Provost were—" That he put back the natives which ought to be preferred to Scholarship or Fellowship in that College, and before and after fetched in

1 Journals of the House of Commons, 18th February, 1640

strangers of his pupils in Cambridge, and others of his purpose, though less learned, and preferred them to the Fellowships and offices in the College, and government, though less worthy than the natives." . . . . " That the Mathematick and Hebrew lectures were put down, and other exercises of learning." He also abolished the Professorship of Irish. But the principal charge (and one which has been continually repeated from that time to the present day, against the authorities of the College) was, that he fraudulently mismanaged the College property. As it is interesting to trace through a series of years the same complaints occurring against the same persons, we give this charge in full :—

" Whereas a complaint hath been made against the late Provost, the now Bishop of Cork, among other things, that he made several leases of the College lands, to the hindrance of the College, and disiinprovement of their revenue; and for that the state of the charter of the College, and the order of the government to be observed for the future, be under the consideration of this house; and for that information is given to this house, that several leases, respecting the estates made heretofore, will be found fraudulent, and for that avoided; and that some of the tenants of the lands of the said College seek to take new leases of their lands, and several others seek confirmation of their former leases from the now Provost and Fellows: it is ordered by this house that the now Provost and Fellows shall make no lease of any of the said College lands, nor confirm any such lease already made, till this house give further order therein."

Carte, in his brief account of these transactions, appears to hint that Catholics were now first, by public statute, excluded from the University ; he says that Laud drew up a body of statutes, " by some of which Romish recusants were excluded from the benefit of any education or preferment in the College of Dublin." The House of Commons, on Frebruary 23, 1640, had appointed a secret committee to repair to the College to examine the charters and statutes then in force; but the authorities, more suo, made a difficulty of producing those papers, so that at the beginning of this session the House renewed their proceedings, and ordered the Provost and Fellows to deliver copies gratis of all their charters. In the course of their proceedings they authorized the committee to view the old and new statutes, and to prepare and make ready a draught of both to be observed by the College.1 But nothing final appears to have been done in this matter. More important affairs engaged them. The rising of 1641 drew their attention from the superintendence of education. XDhappel, like many other an adventurer before and after him, having come to Ireland, and enriched himself there, fled back to England to enjoy his gains. Their resentment against him was bitter and lasting. Six years of rebellion and civil war elapsed, but still they did not forget him. In the short parliament of 1647, the proceedings were resumed. But this, too, came to nought. Chappel died in England in 1649.1

1 Carte's History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde—London, 1736, i. p. 147.

The early Provosts, all of whom were educated in England, made different attempts to assimilate the constitution of the University of Dublin to that of the English Universities, by the establishment of other Colleges and Halls. The first new foundation of this kind which we find any trace of, was in 1604. One Woodward was employed as College Schoolmaster, with a quarterly allowance of £2 10s.s This school was a separate place of instruction,3 but we are not told where it was held ; and probably it was instituted to instruct the junior students in English and Latin. The time which they spent at this school was reckoned as part of that required by the University for taking their degrees ; but no further notice is taken of the school. In 1617, a bridewell which had been erected in College-green was sold by the Corporation of Dublin to the University for £30, on condition that it was to be converted into a College, under the name of Trinity Hall ; and it was so employed until the Eebellion of 1641, " when the said Hall was by poor people occupied, and in a manner ruinated, the said College not being in a condition to look after it, or wholly neglecting it." The College authorities consequently discontinued their lectures, or whatever

1 Taylor's History of the University of Dublin, p. 36.

' Quarterly Journal of Education, vol. vi. p. 14.

' This may be inferred from an entry in an old book of accounts, in Provost Alvey's handwriting:—" For a booke of regiatrie of matriculatio into ye Colledge of such as are sent to ye school."—ib.

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